Sum m ary The Vocabulary fo r IELTS book and CD cover vocabulary item s and .. Recognizing synonyms (words with approximately the same meaning) can. The Ten Essential IELTS Vocabulary Topics Each module has a clear-to-follow definition of each word or phrase, and a further example of how to use these. The IELTS Academic Writing module measures your ability to write in my mind it was the service free pdf ielts downloads printable word doc ielts writing.
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personalized IELTS vocabulary PDF files based on various IELTS word lists of student you used to learn new English word by definition in mother language. Their are a lot of vocabulary books in PDF you can practise with. Use below buttons to Whenever possible, one-word definitions are used. Although this makes. The KET Vocabulary List was originally developed by Cambridge ESOL in The meaning of each word or phrase in the wordlists has been assigned a level.
Email 2K Shares Let me tell you a secret. Sure you need to use reading skills like skimming and scanning but, lots of people have done really well on the IELTS test without practicing these skills. What separates students who get band 9 and everyone else is one thing. You not only have to know lots of vocabulary but you have to know lots of synonyms words that have the same or very similar meanings. This question looks simple enough. All we have to do is use our reading skills to locate the information in the paragraphs, right? Not really!
Synonyms: odd, fantastic, grotesque, eccentric BOG: A swamp - sank into the spongy bog. Synonyms: persistent, unremitting, inveterate, incessant, constant Antonyms: intermittent, sporadic, infrequent CIVIL: 1. Of or having to do with citizens or the state - We I civil duties as well as civil liberties. Polite, courteous - answered in a civil fashion. General agreement - The consensus of the committee was that no action should be taken.
Synonyms: praiseworthy, meritorious, commendable Antonyms: discreditable, infamous, opprobrious, ignominious CURT: Rudely abrupt -offended by the curt response. Synonyms: disparage, derogate adj. Synonym: circuitous 2 Straying from the right course - used devious means to attain his wicked ends. Synonyms: pious, religious Antonym: impious DILEMMA: A situation calling for a choice between two equally difficult alternatives; hence, a difficult or perplexing situation - faced with a dilemma defying solution.
Synonym: charm, talisman, amulet 2 An object of unreasoning devotion and worship — Photography, begun as a hobby, became a fetish. Synonyms: accost, salute HOAX noun : A trick or deception; a practical joke - played a hoax upon the credulous public.
Synonym: canard verb : To play a trick on; to deceive - He hoaxed the crowd completely with his disguise.
Synonyms: probity, uprightness, incorruptibility JARGON: Confused, unintelligible, meaningless talk; special vocabulary used only by members of a group or trade - Variety, a newspaper written in theatrical jargon. I researched this, and found surprisingly few good vocabulary PDFs that are available on the web for free. Enjoy, and feel free to let us know what you think in the comments.
If you use a study schedule, such as our academic IELTS one month study schedule or our one week IELTS study schedule , be sure to think carefully about how vocabulary fits into all of your study and practice activities.
And as you look for the best IELTS books and resources , think about how these resources can help you build your vocabulary, directly or indirectly. Beyond the resources Magoosh currently offers, there are other places where you can find excellent vocabulary study materials. For especially ambitious scholars, I specifically recommend Vocabulary. The AWL features the academic vocabulary words that most often appear in university-level texts and lectures. However, if you overuse them or use them inappropriately you w ill not sound natural.
Notice how proficient speakers use them and in w hat contexts. Avoid using them in every sentence. This part of the exam takes m inutes. As you do this practice exercise, pause the CD a fte r each question so that you can answer. You may want to record yourself, assess your perform ance, and try again. Sample answers to the questions are in the Answ er key on page Verbs associated with problems: Practice exercises Match the words a-d with the situations But I need to present my passport to the exam iner in order to sit the test next week.
What an impossible s itu a tio n! Com plete each sentence w ith the 32 m ost appropriate w ord a-e. Listen and check your answers. For questions in the Listening exam which require you to w rite the answer: Use only w ords that you hear in the recording.
Make sure that you spell the w ords correctly. C ulture shock can be defined as the d ifficu lty people experience when ajusting to a new culture that is significantly d iffre n t from th e ir own. There are no fixed symptoms associated w ith culture shock as each individual reacts to the experience in his or her own way. However, the shock of moving to a foriegn country is often seen as consisting of distinct phases.
Over tim e, the newcom er enters a th ird phase, a period of ajustm ent, during which new coping s k ills are developed.
Finally, there is a period of acceptence - the individual can operate in the new envirom ent w ith ease. There is no set way of aproaching the problem of culture shock. Evidence suggests that each person learns to cope w ith the transition in th e ir own way. However, the unpleasant symptoms associated w ith the m ore d ifficu lt phases can be aleviated by a few sim ple measures: Listening - short-answer questions Exam tip: For any question which requires you to w rite an answer, follow the instructions exactly.
If the instructions te ll you to w rite no more than three words, you can w rite one, two or three words. If you have to w rite m ore than three words to answer the question, you have probably chosen the wrong inform ation. U If a student has a disagreem ent w ith a landlord, what can m em bers of the w elfare team do? Circle those which have a negative meaning. The negotiators decided to stick w ith the Complete the table below with the missing parts of speech.
Recognizing which part of speech is required in a gap can help you do this. In this sentence the gap comes before a noun so it is likely to require an adjective. He won the argument because he was able to present the most credible evidence. Use each word once only. Some m aintain that readers use a bottom -up approach.
C ritics have cast doubt on the validity of this model by pointing out, fo r example, that readers can often understand texts which have words missing. They believe that readers use th e ir understanding of the overall context of the reading passage to w ork out the meaning of individual words, phrases and sentences. However, flaws have also been identified in this perspective. It is obvious, fo r example, that it would be im possible fo r readers to read a text w ritte n in a language com pletely unknown to them , however much they knew about the context.
However, this interpretation is not always 6 What is humour? We a ll recognize it when we see it, but do we really know what it is?
For over years, philosophers and psychologists have tried to answer this question; however, there has been little consensus to date over what, in essence, constitutes humour.
Indeed, some scholars have identified as many as distinct theories of hum our in the literature on the subject. The standard analysis classifies theories of hum our into three broad categories: The superiority theory can be traced back to the ancient Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato, who maintained that we laugh at the m isfortune or inferiority of others: According to this fram ework, our sense of superiority brings about a feeling of joy or pleasure.
W hilst this may explain some instances of humour, it is clearly not valid in every case: Proponents of this approach see laughter as a release of nervous or pent-up energy. The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, fo r example, noted that jokes often touch on taboo subjects such as infidelity or death.
He believed that laughter is a release of psychic energy that would norm ally be used to suppress awareness of uncom fortable subjects. However, this theory too has its flaws. Some critics have pointed out that the failure to distinguish between laughter a physical response and hum our a concept relating to thought or feeling has resulted in unhelpful ambiguity. This brings us to the third category: According to this fram ework, hum our occurs when there is a sudden resolution of a m ismatch between expectation and reality.
Puns, jokes which play on the double meaning of words, are a good illustration of this view. The humorous tw ist occurs when the te lle r reveals that he has in fact chosen as his password characters fictional people from a w ell-know n animated film.
While incongruity theories of hum our are generally seen as having the greatest credibility, they too have th e ir critics. Experience tells us that some incongruities - finding a shoe in your refrigerator, for example - may simply be experienced as perplexing or uncomfortable. What can one conclude from this? Perhaps only that w hilst each of these approaches can explain some instances of humour, no single one has captured every aspect of this most elusive quality.
Practice exercises E xa m tip: In the IELTS W riting exam you can use words such as vast and m arginally to present facts, figures or trends effectively. Vast amounts of money have been spent on IT projects that have proved unworkable. The percentage of students studying science and engineering was marginally higher last year than it has been in the previous ten years.
For each sentence circle the words in bold which are sim ilar in meaning to big or a lot of. Underline the words in bold which are similar in meaning to small.
U There is a marked difference between urban and ru ra l areas in te rm s of job losses. In the W riting exam you should also indicate how certain you are about the j facts and opinions you present. I If you want to express a high degree of certainty, use w ords like conclusive. I Example: Astronomers were able to present conclusive evidence that the universe is expanding. He was apparently calm when he discovered the damage to his car. U People who gam ble rarely win m ore than they lose.
W riting Task 1 Using adjectives and adverbs of quantity and degree com plete the report below. The graph below shows the number o f hours per day on average that children spent watching television.
The graph covers the period between and Then complete the report in your own words. The study was undertaken in response to num erous articles in the popular press and elsewhere criticizing parents fo r abandoning tra d ition a l ch ild -re a rin g practices.
According to the researchers, parents today m onitor th e ir children much more intensively than they did a generation ago; moreover, parental expectations of good behaviour have also steadily increased. The incidence of conduct problem s, on the other hand, appears to have hardly altered. The authors conclude that the quality of parenting, if anything, seems to have improved, and that conduct problem s would be significantly more acute if parents had not developed g reater responsiveness to the needs of th e ir children.
Make any other necessary changes. She applied fo r the job. Geology is the study of the stru ctu re and origin of the earth. The m inim um age at which young people can legally download tobacco products should be increased to eighteen.
People need to th in k carefully before choosing an occupation, [hence] 6 There was a dispute over land ownership. The two com m unities had lived harm oniously fo r many years, [prior] O 6 Listen to speakers and indicate whether the statements below are True or False. U Speaker fo u r suspects that Jim did not w rite the essay him self. Describe a problem you have experienced during your w ork or studies.
When you are ready, try the task yourself. You can make some notes to help you if you wish. I was given the desk next to Lin and she explained everything to me. She was incredibly efficient. She knew the job so well, and she made it look so easy. She really knows what she wants to achieve with the organization, but at the same time she is so flexible and open to new ideas. She really takes an interest not only in her clients but also in her employees.
She really listens to what they have to say. Historically, only children were relatively uncommon. However, these days, as families are becoming smaller, being an only child has become relatively more common. However, I will say that having an only child generally means that parental resources can be concentrated on the one child. And I would add that, by parental resources I mean not just money but also care and attention.
Only children have frequently been seen as different from children with siblings and subjected to negative stereotype. They are often considered to be less tolerant of others - i. Not surprisingly, they are sometimes said to be less co-operative than other children - in other words, less able to work effectively with others.
On the other hand, only children are often highly regarded for their autonomy, that is to say, their ability to make their own decisions without being unduly influenced by others. In fact more recent research has found that only children are in fact very similar to children with siblings By birth order I mean whether an individual is the firstborn child in the family, a middle child, an only child, and so on. The belief that birth order has a lasting impact on personality is widespread and frequently referred to in popular psychology literature.
Alfred Adler, an Austrian psychotherapist, was one of the first to suggest that there was a connection between birth order and personality. He noticed that firstborn children experienced a loss of status with the birth of siblings.
According to Adler, this made eldest children more likely to be anxious than other children. However, on the positive side, they also tend to be conscientious and achievement-oriented, perhaps because they want to regain a position of primacy within the family.
Since Adler, there have been many attempts to establish links between birth order and a range of personality traits. Some studies have found that last-born children tend to be more extrovert and agreeable, that is, they not only seek out the company of others but also tend to get along well with other people.
Some studies, for example, have found that middle children are more likely to choose unconventional careers and hobbies. However, whilst these views are widely held among the public, scholars have more recently cast doubt on their validity. Large-scale meta-analyses of studies have proved inconclusive with no single trait consistently associated with a given position within the family.
Nevertheless, most people are intuitively drawn to the idea that birth order has an effect on the sort of people we become. We had booked an excursion to the beach but chose to venture into the hills instead, hoping to see some of the local wildlife.
Speaker 2: Speaker 3: We looked all over the town and eventually found a local guide to accompany us to the nearest village. Speaker 4: Because of the disturbances, we had to reschedule our journey for the following week. Speaker 5: You can expect to encounter some pretty strange insects in the rainforest. Speaker 6: While backpacking around Thailand, I had to learn to overcome difficulties by myself. Track 05 I had the most amazing adventure last year.
I spent an afternoon exploring the caves near my village with a group of friends. He supplied all the equipment and showed us what to do and how to stay safe. The route down into the earth was really narrow in places.
It was quite an intense experience. At one point, I was completely wedged in between two sheets of rock. It was a struggle to stay calm. Eventually I was able to work my way free and continue the journey. After what seemed like ages the tunnel opened up into this huge space underground. It was damp and pitch black - full of echoes and other strange noises.
We had to tread carefully and hang onto each other as the ground was very uneven and there were pools of water all over the place, goodness knows how deep.
We slowly worked our way around and back out the way we came in. I suppose I chose to go on this adventure because I needed a challenge. I tend to get nervous in small spaces, so this was an opportunity to try to overcome my fears. Also, this was the last summer we were going to be together before heading off to university, so it was good to do something special, something memorable.
I felt really proud of myself at the end of it. It was a valuable experience. There's no way I could have done it on my own. It consists of a cylinder with a radius of approximately 4 cm and a height of 12 cm. There is a small hole 1 mm in diameter positioned halfway up the wall of the cylinder. A sheet of photographic paper 18 cm in width curves round the inside of the cylinder leaving a gap of about 1 cm just behind the pinhole. The camera is very simple to use, but it takes a long time to produce a picture.
If you fix the camera outside and expose it to the light, after a few minutes, you will find that an image has appeared on the photographic paper. Track 07 1 You may need to adjust the volume of the microphone so that we can hear you at the back of the room.
Track 08 Lisa: Bill, what have we got? Anybody got any ideas? Maybe we could use the elastic bands to launch the ball across the gap J think we should create a sort of bridge with the sheets of paper. We could suspend it between the tables. How would that work? We could cut the paper into strips of about 10 cm wide I get it! But how would we secure the bridge to the table? Well, if we fold the sides of the paper so that it forms a cylinder or tube that would keep the ball from rolling onto the floor.
This would also help keep the bridge rigid enough to span the distance between the tables. What do you think Bill? I think that's a brilliant idea. If necessary we could use the drinking straws to further reinforce the structure.
Do you think 10 cm strips would be wide enough? The Owl and the Pussy-cat went to sea In a beautiful pea-green boat, They took some honey, and plenty of money, Wrapped up in a five-pound note Yes, thank-you. As I think we all recognize, the need for change in the banking sector is long overdue.
Michalski plays it into the penalty area Dembinski out to Bajor Bajor beats one man, crosses the ball into the centre But darling, I said nothing of the sort! You most certainly did! Peter was there! He saw everything Track 10 Speaker 1: In my second year I helped set up the university radio station.
It used to broadcast everything from campus news to local bands. As a secondary school pupil I participated in regional and national debates around the country. It was challenging, and very rewarding. I used to love watching the conductor - I wanted to be one myself for a time.
I was editor of the student magazine for a while. People sent in all kinds of articles. I had to choose what to include and then put it all together. I used to attend gallery openings all the time.
I love contemporary art. Tell me more about what that involves. I have to tell the actors what to do. I have to make sure the sets are all right - and the lighting, things like that.
How did you first get started? But my room-mate had a small part in a play and I used to go along to their rehearsals. One day he was ill and I stood in for him. I loved it. What else do you enjoy doing in your spare time? I quite like listening to music. Droughts occur when there is a lack of rainfall. Hurricanes and typhoons are both violent storms that develop over water. If the storm develops in the Atlantic or Caribbean it is referred to as a hurricane.
If it develops in the Pacific, it is known as a typhoon. The largest glaciers in the world are found in the polar ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland. Glaciers are also found in mountains. A current is a steady flowing movement of air or water. Track 15 1 Sentence a: In freezing temperatures, water turns into ice and expands. Sentence b: Metal, on the other hand, contracts when cold.
It is highly likely that glaciers will continue to melt. It is unlikely that they will melt as quickly as some climate experts had predicted. Previous predictions were based on inaccurate data. More accurate information is now available. Some climate scientists may have overestimated the rate of global warming Sentence b: Others may have underestimated the impact of climate change. In its conclusions, it states that the evidence for global warming continues to be overwhelming.
However, according to the panel, some of the risk factors identified in earlier reports have been overstated, whereas other impacts of global warming may have been understated. In this talk, I'm going to outline some of the overstated risk factors and explain the current position on each.
One of the most significant revisions in the new report concerns estimates of rising sea levels. Previous studies had predicted that sea levels would rise by more than two metres.
The latest evidence suggests that sea levels are likely to rise by no more than one metre. This is good news for many coastal areas as flood defences currently in place are much more likely to cope with a rise of one metre.
A rise of two metres would have required major investment in flood defences. Some appear to be contracting faster than predicted, and others appear to be expanding. The latest predictions bring this date forward by 20 years to In the Antarctic, on the other hand, the ice sheet appears to be expanding as sea water freezes over.
This variability in ice sheet activity accounts for the differences in our predictions of rising sea levels. Another significant revision of our understanding of climate change concerns the Gulf Stream.
As many of you probably know, the Gulf Stream is a current of warm sea water that travels from the tropics northeastwards across the Atlantic.
It is responsible for keeping temperatures in Europe and North America degrees warm er than they would be otherwise. An earlier study concluded that the flow rate of the Gulf Stream had decreased by 30 per cent since the s.
It warned that the northern hemisphere could be heading for another ice age, in other words, a period of prolonged cold. However, a more recent study has indicated that currents of warm water have actually accelerated in the last 20 years. Climate scientists now believe that these differences are due to natural variability and that the Gulf Stream is unlikely to disappear.
This is good news for those who live in Europe and North America. As far as consequences go, there is new evidence that tropical forests are more susceptible to drought than previously thought and that the severity of severe weather events such as hurricanes and typhoons may have been underestimated in the past. This is particularly bad news for those who live in southern regions. More worrying, there is stronger evidence that thawing permafrost in northern regions is producing very high emissions of methane gas.
As I explained in an earlier lecture, methane is a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. This thawing ground has the potential to significantly exacerbate climate change. I therefore have to conclude this talk by saying that, in spite of the good news on rising sea levels, global warming continues to be a serious cause for concern.
To ignore it would be most irresponsible. You may need to stay indoors at certain times of the year and take antihistamines to improve your condition. You really need to drink at least a litre of water a day.
Track 18 1 It took us forever to get out of the city. We must have driven for an hour and a half - nothing but shopping malls and bungalows as far as the eye could see. And the skyscrapers are just amazing. You really need to see it to believe it. It was gorgeous - so peaceful. Street performers, clowns, acrobats, all kinds of people peddling all kinds of crazy things. Track 19 1 I was never cut out to be an engineer. So, yes, on the whole I think changing over to product design was the right decision for me.
That would neverhave happenedinmy day, even though we were much better informed than kids nowadays. There is much less discipline and pupils are difficult to control. Standards of behaviour have really declined. In what ways has the countryside in your country changed during your lifetime?
There are far fewer young people living in the countryside. Many of them have had to abandon rural life and move to the cities to look for work. What do you think is the most significant change in the way people communicate? Social networking sites - definitely. You could almost spark a revolution with a click of a mouse. I think as energy becomes more expensive, we will have to modify how we live - consume less, conserve more. In what ways has the experience of living abroad affected you?
How, in your view, are patterns of employment in your country likely to change in the next few years? Many more people are going to work in financial services. That whole sector is developing very rapidly in my country. There are lots of opportunities now. Track 21 1 I grew up in a village that looks much as it did five centuries ago. Almost nothing has altered. Surgeons will be able to perform operations that we can only dream of now.
Nowadays, people are more likely to challenge authority figures.
Track 24 Examiner: Do you think people are more adventurous now than in the past? On the whole, yes, I think they are. People expect more from life and want to develop personally as well as professionally.
People are looking for experiences that will transform them in some way - give them new insights. For example, many people my age want to travel abroad and experience very different life styles. Why, in your view, have attitudes towards risk changed? I suppose society has evolved.
There is a greater emphasis on independence and originality. In my country, previous generations were more likely to conform. People would adjust their behaviour so as not to stand out too much. These days, people want to be a bit different; they want to stand out from the crowd. I think as tourism extends into every corner of the world, interest in foreign travel as a form of adventure will diminish.
It will be quite an adventure! A Psychiatry and psychology are two distinct disciplines. Track 26 1 In order to stay healthy it is important to eat a varied diet.
A There is a remarkable resemblance between this song and one that was recorded thirty years ago. Indeed numerous surveys have shown that most working adults today perceive the workplace to be a more challenging environment than in previous generations. Although on the surface of it, stressful work and challenging work may appear to be identical, it is important to distinguish between the two terms.
A teacher who is required to teach a subject he or she knows nothing about or is not interested in is likely to experience job stress. A challenging job is very different in that it encourages the worker to develop skills and resources. Meeting a challenge is rewarding. It is comparable to stretching out to grasp a prize that is nearly within reach. Challenging work can be energizing and contribute to a greater sense of well-being.
In fact an appropriate level of challenge is essential for good physical and emotional health. While we often see some jobs as being inherently stressful or challenging, it is important to remember that these qualities are a function of the match between the worker and the job.
Two workers may well have very different experiences of the same job as no two workers are alike. What is a stressful job for one may well be a challenging job for another. I'd love to return to Africa some day. T ra c k 29 1 absolutely 2 necessarily 3 particularly 4 presumably 5 supposedly 6 surprisingly T ra c k 30 Tell me about the house or flat you live in.