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Get this from a library! Injil Barnabas: terjemahan dalam bahasa Indonesia. [M Baharun;]. Publisher: Surabaya: Bina Ilmu. Year: Stock: 1 eks. Indeks Page: eks. Information: x, hlm.; 22 cm eks. 1. ALKITAB - TERJEMAHAN. I. Rahnip M. Injil Barnabas: terjemahan dalam bahasa Indonesia. Gospel of Barnabas. Indonesian. Save to Lists Login to SaveManage List. Injil Barnabas.
Kitab Henokh disebut juga 1 Henokh ;  bahasa Ge'ez: Kitab ini bukan bagian dari kanon biblika sebagaimana yang digunakan oleh kaum Yahudi, selain dari Yahudi Ethiopia. Sebagian besar denominasi dan tradisi Kristen mungkin menerima Kitab Henokh karena sejumlah kepentingan historis dan teologis, tetapi mereka umumnya memandang Kitab Henokh non-kanonik atau bukan kitab yang terilhami secara ilahi. Kitab Henokh selengkapnya yang masih ada hanya dalam versi bahasa Ge'ez , dengan fragmen-fragmen Aramaik dari Gulungan Laut Mati serta beberapa fragmen Yunani dan Latin. Karena alasan tersebut dan lainnya, kaum Ethiopia secara tradisi meyakini kalau bahasa asli karya ini adalah bahasa Ge'ez, sedangkan para akademisi non-Ethiopia cenderung menyatakan bahwa kitab ini pertama kali ditulis entah dalam bahasa Ibrani atau Aramaik; Ephraim Isaac mengemukakan bahwa Kitab Henokh, sama seperti Kitab Daniel , sebagian disusun dalam bahasa Aram dan sebagian lagi dalam bahasa Ibrani.
The final Chapter in the Italian is missing from the Spanish text. In the quotations of Joseph White, there is a further difference in that the long Chapter in the Italian text is split, so that Chapter in Dr. White's text corresponds to Chapter in the Sydney transcript and Chapter in the Italian manuscript. White's Chapter corresponds with both Chapters and in the Sydney transcript, and Chapters and in the Italian.
In this context it may be noted that Chapter in the Italian manuscript contains a corrected chapter division, in that the scribe originally split off the final paragraph into the start of Chapter , and then erased and overwrote the division.
This suggests that whatever text the scribe of the Italian manuscript was using as his copy, was unclear as to chapter divisions at this point. Besides the absent final chapter, and the large lacuna already noted; the Spanish text also misses a section of around words from its Chapter Chapter in the Italian and another substantial but shorter section from Chapter Chapter in the Italian.
These may be related to Sale's note that the manuscript was damaged towards the end. Otherwise there are numerous points where words present in the Italian text and necessary for the sense are not represented in the Spanish translation. Conversely there are also around a dozen places where the Raggs had speculated that a word or phrase might have been accidentally omitted in their Italian text, and in all these instances, the Spanish text supplies the missing words.
Unlike the Italian text, the Spanish text has no Arabic marginal notes or chapter summaries, nor are the Italian titles for the first twenty-seven chapters represented in the Spanish.
There is a title provided in the Spanish text above the Prologue but this differs from that provided above the Prologue in the Italian text. Contrariwise, there is a title provided above Chapter in the Sydney transcript, which is not found either above the corresponding Chapter in the Italian text, nor is quoted at this point by Dr.
Other than in their respective copyist errors, there appear to be few substantial differences of meaning between the Spanish and Italian text; but one notable variant is found in the description of the crucifixion of Judas Iscariot in Chapter in the Spanish text in the Italian text. Jesus Christ has been miraculously abstracted from the action; and Judas, transformed into the likeness of Jesus, is crucified in his place.
In the Spanish manuscript, and Dr. White's translation, it is said that all Jesus's disciples remained fooled by the transformation throughout the crucifixion "excepting Peter"; but this specific qualification is not present in the Italian text, nor is Peter stated as an exception in the earlier account of the transformation itself in Chapter of the Spanish text.
Some researchers of the work argue for an Italian origin,  noting phrases in Barnabas which are very similar to phrases used by Dante  and suggesting that the author of Barnabas borrowed from Dante's works; they take the Spanish version's preface and translators's note as supporting this conclusion. Other researchers argue that the Spanish version came first; regarding both the translator's note, and the Spanish preface's claims of an Italian source, as fabrications intended to boost the work's credibility by linking it to the Papal libraries.
These scholars note parallels with a series of Morisco forgeries, the Lead Books of Sacromonte , dating from the s; or otherwise with Morisco reworkings of Christian and Islamic traditions, produced following the expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain.
A detailed comparison between the surviving Italian and Spanish texts shows numerous places where the Spanish reading appears to be secondary, as for example, where a word or phrase necessary for the meaning is missing in the Spanish text but present in the Italian.
In particular, he sees the Spanish text as containing numerous 'Italicisms' as, for example, where the Italian text employs the conjunction pero , with an Italian meaning 'therefore'; while the Spanish text also reads pero , with a Spanish meaning 'however'; the Italian sense being the one demanded by the context. There are, however, other passages where the Spanish reading makes sense, while the Italian does not, and many features of the Italian text that are not found in the Spanish; such as the titles for chapters 1— Joosten argues that this indicates that both the 16th-century Italian and Spanish texts must depend on a lost Italian original, which he, in common with the Raggs, dates substantially to the midth century.
Joosten states:. A systematic comparison of the Italian and Spanish texts of the Gospel of Barnabas leads to the conclusion that the Spanish was translated from the Italian at a date somewhat removed from the original.
If the Italian version is the original, then a plausible context for the text in its final form may be within anti-Trinitarian circles in Transylvania. In the mid 16th century many Italian and German anti-Trinitarians, persecuted both by Calvinists and by the Inquisition, sought refuge in Transylvania,  whose church had adopted anti-Trinitarian doctrines in , and whose aristocratic houses maintained an Italian-speaking culture.
Michael Fremaux, in support of the hypothesis that the Italian manuscript may have been brought to Amsterdam from Translyvania, instances Symon Budny , Jacob Palaeologus and Christian Francken as late 16th century anti-Trinitrian thinkers with Transylvanian connections, whose religious teachings find close parallels in the Gospel of Barnabas.
Although some found initial refuge in Italy especially Venice , most resettled in the Ottoman Empire , where Spanish speaking Jews established in Istanbul a rich sub-culture with a flourishing Hebrew and Ladino printing industry.
Numbers were further augmented after , following campaigns of persecution by the Venetian Inquisition against Italian anti-Trinitarians and Jews. In the Spanish preface, Fra Marino records his wish that the Gospel of Barnabas should be printed, and the only place in Europe where that would have been possible in the late 16th century would have been Istanbul.
The lost Spanish manuscript claimed to have been written in Istanbul, and the surviving Italian manuscript has several Turkish features;  so, whether the language of origin was Spanish or Italian, Istanbul is regarded by most researchers as the place of origin of the two known texts. A minority of researchers — such as David Sox  — are, however, suspicious of the apparent 'Turkish' features of the Italian manuscript;  especially the Arabic annotations, which they adjudge to be so riddled with elementary errors as to be most unlikely to have been written in Istanbul even by an Italian scribe.
In particular, they note that the glossing of the Italian version of the shahada into Arabic, does not correspond exactly with the standard ritual formula recited daily by every Muslim. These researchers are inclined to infer from these inconsistencies that both manuscripts may represent an exercise in forensic falsification, and they tend to locate their place of origin as Rome.
Few academics argue that the text, in its present form, dates back any earlier than the 14th—16th centuries; although a minority see it as containing portions of an earlier work, and almost all would detect the influence of earlier sources—over and above the Vulgate text of the Latin Bible.
Consequently, most researchers would concur with a stratification of the surviving text into at least three distinct layers of composition: Much of the controversy and dispute concerning the authenticity of the Gospel of Barnabas can be re-expressed as debating whether specific highly transgressive themes from an orthodox Christian perspective might already have been present in the source materials utilised by a 14th—16th-century vernacular author, whether they might be due to that author himself, or whether they might even have been interpolated by the subsequent editor.
Those researchers who regard these particular themes as primitive, nevertheless do not generally dispute that other parts of the Gospel may be late and anachronistic; while those researchers who reject the authenticity of these particular themes do not generally dispute that other parts of the Gospel could be transmitting variant readings from antiquity.
This work clearly contradicts the New Testament biblical accounts of Jesus and his ministry but has strong parallels with the Islamic faith, not only mentioning Muhammad by name, but including the shahadah chapter It is strongly anti- Pauline and anti- Trinitarian in tone.
In this work, Jesus is described as a prophet and not the son of God ,  while Paul is called "the deceived.
These beliefs—in particular, that Jesus is a prophet of God and raised alive without being crucified—conform to or resemble Islamic teachings which say that Jesus is a major prophet who did not die on the cross but was taken alive by angels to God.
Other passages, however, conflict with the teachings of the Qur'an —as, for instance, in the account of the Nativity , where Mary is said to have given birth to Jesus without pain  or as in Jesus's ministry, where he permits the drinking of wine and enjoins monogamy  —though the Qur'an allegedly acknowledges each prophet had a set of their own laws that might differ in some aspects from each other.
Other examples include that hell will only be for the committers of the seven deadly sins Barnabas: If the Gospel of Barnabas is seen as an attempted synthesis of elements from both Christianity and Islam, then 16th- and 17th-century parallels can be suggested in Morisco and anti-Trinitarian writings. The Gospel of Barnabas was little known outside academic circles until recent times, when a number of Muslims have taken to publishing it to argue against the orthodox Christian conception of Jesus.
It generally resonates better with existing Muslim views than with Christianity: Qur'an Sura 4 Verse And because of their saying: We slew the Messiah Jesus son of Mary, Allah's messenger They slew him not nor crucified, but it appeared so unto them; and lo!
Allah is ever Mighty, wise. Rather than describing the crucifixion of Jesus, Gospel of Barnabas describes him being raised up into heaven  It can be likened to the description of Elijah in 2 Kings , Chapter 2.
It also foretells the coming of Muhammad by name and it calls Jesus a "prophet" whose mission was restricted to the "house of Israel ". It contains an extended polemic against the doctrine of predestination Chapter , and in favour of justification by faith ; arguing that the eternal destination of the soul to Heaven or Hell is neither pre-determined by God's grace as in Calvinism , nor the judgement of God, in his mercy, on the faith of believers on Earth as in Islam.
Instead it states that all those condemned at the last judgement , but who subsequently respond in faith, who demonstrate unfeigned penitence, and who make a free choice of blessedness, will eventually be offered salvation Chapter Such radically Pelagian beliefs in the 16th century were found amongst the anti-Trinitarian Protestant traditions later denoted as Unitarianism.
Some 16th-century anti-Trinitarian divines sought to reconcile Christianity, Islam and Judaism; on the basis of very similar arguments to those presented in the Gospel of Barnabas, arguing that if salvation remains unresolved until the end times, then any one of the three religions could be a valid path to heaven for their own believers.
The Spaniard, Michael Servetus denounced the orthodox Christian formulation of the Trinity alleging the only explicit reference to the Trinity in the New Testament to be a later interpolation ; and hoped thereby to bridge the doctrinal divide between Christianity and Islam. In he was executed in Geneva under the authority of John Calvin , but his teachings remained very influential amongst Italian Protestant exiles.
Included in chapter is "The little book of Elijah ";  which sets out instructions for a righteous life of asceticism and hermitic spirituality. Over the succeeding 47 chapters, Jesus is recorded as developing the theme that the ancient prophets , specifically Obadiah , Haggai and Hosea , were holy hermits following this religious rule;  and contrasting their followers — termed "true Pharisees" — with the "false Pharisees " who lived in the world, and who constituted his chief opponents.
The "true Pharisees" are said to congregate on Mount Carmel. This accords with the teaching of the medieval Carmelites ,  who lived as an eremetic congregation on Carmel in the 13th century; but who claimed without any evidence to be direct successors of Elijah and the Old Testament prophets.
In the Mamluk advance into Syria compelled the friars on Carmel to abandon their monastery; but on dispersing through Western Europe they found that Western Carmelite congregations — especially in Italy — had largely abandoned the eremetic and ascetic ideal, adopting instead the conventual life and mission of the other Mendicant orders. Some researchers consider that the ensuing 14th—16th-century controversies can be found reflected in the text of the Gospel of Barnabas.
The Gospel also takes a strongly anti-Pauline tone at times, saying in the Italian version's beginning: The Gospel of Barnabas claims that Jesus predicted the advent of Muhammad, thus conforming with the Qur'an which mentions:.
And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: O Children of Israel! I am the apostle of God sent to you, confirming the Law which came before me, and giving Glad Tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad. But when he came to them with Clear Signs, they said, this is evident sorcery! Ahmad is an Arabic name from the same triconsonantal root as Muhammad: A Muslim scholarly tradition links this Qur'anic passage to the New Testament references to the Paraclete in the canonical Gospel of John The Greek word " paraclete " can be translated as "Counsellor", and refers according to Christians to the Holy Spirit.
Some Muslim scholars, have noted the similarity to the Greek "periklytos" which can be translated as "admirable one"; or in Arabic, "Ahmad". The name of "Muhammad" is frequently mentioned verbatim in the Gospel of Barnabas, as in the following quote:. Jesus answered: God said: When I shall send thee into the world I shall send thee as my messenger of salvation, and thy word shall be true, insomuch that heaven and earth shall fail, but thy faith shall never fail.
O Admirable One, come quickly for the salvation of the world! However, while there are many passages where the Gospel of Barnabas sets out alternative readings to parallel pericopes found in the canonical gospels, none of the references to Muhammad by name occurs in such a synoptic passage; and in particular, none of the "Muhammad" references in Barnabas corresponds to a "Paraclete" reference in canonical John.
There is only one instance where the Gospel of Barnabas might be understood as "correcting" a known canonical pericope, so as to record a prophecy by Jesus of the unnamed Messenger of God:.
Then Jesus said: For I am not worthy to unloose the ties of the hosen or the ratchets of the shoes of the Messenger of God whom you call 'Messiah', who was made before me, and shall come after me, and shall bring the words of truth, so that his faith shall have no end. This passage corresponds closely with the canonical John 1: John the Baptist does not feature at all in the Gospel of Barnabas - although in the Qur'an he is identified as the revered prophet Yahya ibn Zakariya, foretelling Jesus.
Nor does the Gospel of Barnabas have any reference to the baptism of Jesus or baptism in general. According to one version [ specify ] of the Gospel of Barnabas:. Then said the priest: As mentioned above, these pronouncements contradict Islamic belief as Jesus is not only mentioned as a prophet in the Qur'an but also referred to by the title "al-Masih" which is the Arabic translation of the term "Messiah.
Some Muslim scholars [ citation needed ] argue that the Gospel of Barnabas has been modified, thus inconsistency is observed. Also, some may argue that the word "Messiah" can be a formal title for Jesus Christ, but the meaning "anointed" can be attributed to others, such as King David , anointed to kingship, and his son Solomon.
Some Muslim scholars [ citation needed ] state that this references the Mahdi , an eschatological figure in Islam, who will help defeat al- Masih ad-Dajjal lit. Remember when the angels said: Verily, Allah gives you the glad tidings of a Word ["Be! Injil Barnabas Terjemahan Indonesia Pdf. Pdf - eBook and Cari kata dalam Alkitab tolong: Injil Barnabas Bahasa Indonesia Pdf.
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Ketulenan Injil This article attempts to Thank you very much. Great thanks in advance! Resensi Buku: Kitab Injil Barnabas ini ditulis secara rahasia oleh Barnabas salah satu Salah satu kalimat dalam pujian Maria adalah tentang Tuhan yang Didache pertengahan an , Barnabas dari Alexandria M , Gembala dari. Tidak sedikit umat Muslim mengutip ayat-ayat dari Injil Barnabas untuk menyerang ke-Kristenan.
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