Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 4th Edition. John W. Creswell, University of Nebraska -. Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and and qualitative research John W. Creswell [electronic resource] - 4th ed. support department chairs provide for faculty researchers (Creswell & Brown, ). For the beginning The systematic design for grounded theory is widely used in educational research, and it A handbook for the profession (4th ed., pp.
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Creswell, John W. Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research / John W. Creswell. — 4th ed. p. cm. The following resources are available for instructors to download at portal7.infon. Educational Research This page intentionally left blank Educational Research Planning, Conducting, and Author: John W. Creswell DOWNLOAD PDF. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating by John W. Creswell Download Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence: Third Edition.
Inquirers often overlook this phase, so it is helpful to have it highlighted and positioned first in the levels of the research process. In Phase 2 the researcher brings to the inquiry certain theories, paradigms, and perspectives, a basic set of beliefs that guides action Guba, , p. It is here in Phase 2 that we find the philosophical and theoretical frameworks addressed in this chapter. Following chapters in this book are devoted, then, to the Phase 3 research strategies, called approaches in this book, that will be enumerated as they relate to the research process. Finally, the inquirer engages in Phase 4 methods of data collection and analysis, followed by Phase 5, the interpretation and evaluation of the data.
We see the constructivist worldview manifest in phenomenological studies, in which individuals describe their experiences Moustakas, , and in the grounded theory perspective of Charmaz , in which she grounds her theoretical orientation in the views or perspectives of individuals. Researchers might use an alternative framework, a transformative framework, because the postpositivists impose structural laws and theories that do not fit marginalized individuals or groups and the constructivists do not go far enough in advocating action to help individuals.
The basic tenet of this transformative framework is that knowledge is not neutral and it reflects the power and social relationships within society, and thus the purpose of knowledge construction is to aid people to improve society Mertens, These individuals include marginalized groups such as lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender persons, queers, and societies that need a more hopeful, positive psychology and resilience Mertens, Qualitative research, then, should contain an action agenda for reform that may change the lives of participants, the institutions in which they live and work, or even the researchers lives.
The issues facing these marginalized groups are of paramount importance to study, issues such as oppression, domination, suppression, alienation, and hegemony.
As these issues are studied and exposed, the researchers provide a voice for these participants, raising their consciousness and improving their lives. Describing it as participatory action research, Kemmis and Wilkinson embrace features of this transformative framework: Participatory action is recursive or dialectical and is focused on bringing about change in practices. Thus, in participatory action research studies, inquirers advance an action agenda for change. It is focused on helping individuals free themselves from constraints found in the media, in language, in work procedures, and in the relationships of power in educational settings.
Participatory studies often begin with an important issue or stance about the problems in society, such as the need for empowerment. It is emancipatory in that it helps unshackle people from the constraints of irrational and unjust structures that limit self-development and self-determination.
The aim of this approach is to create a political debate and discussion so that change will occur. It is practical and collaborative because it is inquiry completed with others rather than on or to others.
In this spirit, participatory authors engage the participants as active collaborators in their inquiries. Other researchers who embrace this worldview are Fay and Heron and Reason In practice, this framework has shaped several approaches to inquiry.
Specific social issues e. Not wanting to further marginalize the individuals participating in the research, transformative inquirers collaborate with research participants. They may ask participants to help with designing the questions, collecting the data, analyzing it, and shaping the final report of the research.
In this way, the voice of the participants becomes heard throughout the research process. The research also contains an action agenda for reform, a specific plan for addressing the injustices of the marginalized group.
Postmodern Perspectives Thomas calls postmodernists armchair radicals p. The basic concept is that knowledge claims must be set within the conditions of the world today and in the multiple perspectives of class, race, gender, and other group affiliations.
These conditions are well articulated by individuals such as Foucault, Derrida, Lyotard, Giroux, and Freire Bloland, These are negative conditions, and they show themselves in the presence of hierarchies, power and control by individuals, and the multiple meanings of language.
The conditions include the importance of different discourses, the importance of marginalized people and groups the other , and the presence of metanarratives or universals that hold true regardless of the social conditions.
Also included is the need to deconstruct texts in terms of language, their reading and their writing, and the examining and bringing to the surface of concealed hierarchies as well as dominations, oppositions, inconsistencies, and contradictions Bloland, ; Clarke, ; Stringer, Regarding a postmodern-influenced ethnography, Thomas writes that such a study might confront the centrality of media-created realities and the influence of information technologies p.
Thomas also comments that narrative texts need to be challenged and written , according to the postmodernists, for their subtexts of dominant meanings. There are many forms of pragmatism. Individuals holding an interpretive framework based on pragmatism focus on the outcomes of the researchthe actions, situations, and consequences of inquiryrather than antecedent conditions as in postpositivism.
There is a concern with applicationswhat worksand solutions to problems Patton, Cherryholmes and Murphy provide direction for the basic ideas: Pragmatism is not committed to any one system of philosophy and reality.
Individual researchers have a freedom of choice. They are free to choose the methods, techniques, and procedures of research that best meet their needs and purposes. Pragmatists do not see the world as an absolute unity.
In a similar way, researchers look to many approaches to collecting and analyzing data rather than subscribing to only one way e. Truth is what works at the time; it is not based in a dualism between reality independent of the mind or within the mind. Pragmatist researchers look to the what and how of research based on its intended consequenceswhere they want to go with it. Pragmatists agree that research always occurs in social, historical, political, and other contexts.
Pragmatists have believed in an external world independent of the mind as well as those lodged in the mind. They believe Cherryholmes, that we need to stop asking questions about reality and the laws of nature. They would simply like to change the subject Rorty, , p. Recent writers embracing this worldview include Rorty , Murphy , Patton , Cherryholmes , and Tashakkori and Teddlie In practice, the individual using this worldview will use multiple methods of data collection to best answer the research question, will employ multiple sources of data collection, will focus on the practical implications of the research, and will emphasize the importance of conducting research that best addresses the research problem.
In the discussion here of the five approaches to research, you will see this framework at work when ethnographers employ both quantitative e. Feminism draws on different theoretical and pragmatic orientations, different international contexts, and different dynamic developments Olesen, Feminist research approaches center on and make problematic womens diverse situations and the institutions that frame those situations. Research topics may include a postcolonial thought related to forms of feminism depending on the context of nationalism, globalization and diverse international contexts e.
The theme of domination prevails in the feminist literature as well, but the subject matter is often gender domination within a patriarchal society. Feminist research also embraces many of the tenets of postmodern and poststructuralist critiques as a challenge to the injustices of current society.
In feminist research approaches, the goals are to establish collaborative and nonexploitative relationships, to place the researcher within the study so as to avoid objectification, and to conduct research that is transformative. Recent critical trends address protecting indigenous knowledge and the intersectionality of feminist research e. One of the leading scholars of this approach, Lather , comments on the essential perspectives of this framework.
Feminist researchers see gender as a basic organizing principle that shapes the conditions of their lives. It is a lens that brings into focus particular questions Fox-Keller, , p. The questions feminists pose relate to the centrality of gender in the shaping of our consciousness.
The aim of this ideological research is to correct both the invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to ending womens unequal social position Lather, , p. Another writer, Stewart , translates feminist critiques and methodology into procedural guides. She suggests that researchers need to look for what has been left out in social science writing, and to study womens lives and issues such as identities, sex roles, domestic violence, abortion activism, comparable worth, affirmative action, and the way in which women struggle with their social devaluation and powerlessness within their families.
Also, researchers need to consciously and systematically include their own roles or positions and assess how they impact their understandings of a womans life. In addition, Stewart views women as having agency, the ability to make choices and resist oppression, and she suggests that researchers need to inquire into how a woman understands her gender, acknowledging that gender is a social construct that differs for each individual.
Stewart highlights the importance of studying power relationships and individuals social position and how they impact women. Finally, she sees each woman as different and recommends that scholars avoid the search for a unified or coherent self or voice. Recent discussions indicate that the approach of finding appropriate methods for feminist research has given way to the thought that any method can be made feminist Deem, ; Moss, Olesen summarizes the current state of feminist research under a number of transformative developments e.
Critical Theory and Critical Race Theory CRT Critical theory perspectives are concerned with empowering human beings to transcend the constraints placed on them by race, class, and gender Fay, Researchers need to acknowledge their own power, engage in dialogues, and use theory to interpret or illuminate social action Madison, In research, critical theory can be defined by the particular configuration of methodological postures it embraces.
The critical researcher might design, for example, an ethnographic study to include changes in how people think; encourage people to interact, form networks, become activists, and form action-oriented groups; and help individuals examine the conditions of their existence Madison, ; Thomas, The end goal of the study might be social theorizing, which Morrow and Brown define as the desire to comprehend and, in some cases, transform through praxis the underlying orders of social lifethose social and systemic relations that constitute society p.
The investigator accomplishes this, for example, through an intensive case study or across a small number of historically comparable cases of specific actors biographies , mediations, or systems and through ethnographic accounts interpretive social psychology , componential taxonomies cognitive anthropology , and formal models mathematical sociology p. In critical action research in teacher education, for example, Kincheloe recommends that the critical teacher exposes the assumptions of existing research orientations, critiques the knowledge base, and through these critiques reveals ideological effects on teachers, schools, and the cultures view of education.
The design of research within a critical theory approach, according to sociologist Agger , falls into two broad categories: methodological, in that it affects the ways in which people write and read, and substantive, in the theories and topics of the investigator e. An often-cited classic of critical theory is the ethnography from Willis of the lads who participated in behavior as opposition to authority, as informal groups having a laff p.
Resistance is also the theme addressed in the ethnography of a subcultural group of youths highlighted as an example of ethnography in this book see Haenfler, , in Appendix E. Racism has directly shaped the U. Its first goal is to present stories about discrimination from the perspective of people of color. These may be qualitative case studies of descriptions and interviews.
These cases may then be drawn together to build cases against racially biased officials or discriminatory practices. In this view, race is not a fixed term, but one that is fluid and continually shaped by political pressures and informed by individual lived experiences.
Finally, the third goal of CRT addresses other areas of difference, such as gender, class, and any inequities experienced by individuals. As Parker and Lynn comment, In the case of Black women, race does not exist outside of gender and gender does not exist outside of race p.
In research, the use of CRT methodology means that the researcher foregrounds race and racism in all aspects of the research process; challenges the traditional research paradigms, texts, and theories used to explain the experiences of people of color; and offers transformative solutions to racial, gender, and class subordination in our societal and institutional structures.
Queer theory is characterized by a variety of methods and strategies relating to individual identity Plummer, a; Watson, As a body of literature continuing to evolve, it explores the myriad complexities of the construct, identity, and how identities reproduce and perform in social forums.
Writers also use a postmodern or poststructural orientation to critique and deconstruct dominant theories related to identity Plummer, a, b; Watson, They focus on how it is culturally and historically constituted, is linked to discourse, and overlaps gender and sexuality.
The term itselfqueer theory, rather than gay, lesbian, or homosexual theoryallows for keeping open to question the elements of race, class, age, and anything else Turner, , and it is a term that has changed in meaning over the years and differs across cultures and languages Plummer, b.
Most queer theorists work to challenge and undercut identity as singular, fixed, or normal Watson, The language of research e.
Knowledge claims Ans: A 4. Epistemology relates most closely to: a.
The use of social constructivism b. The methods to collect data c. What counts as knowledge d. The nature of reality e. The manner of writing Ans: C 5. Axiology answers this question: a. What is the role of values? What counts as knowledge? What is the nature of reality? What is the process of research?
How are knowledge claims justified? Ans: A 6.
Philosophical assumptions about methodology are basically concerned with: a. Justification of knowledge claims b. Acknowledging that research is value-laden c.
Multiple realities d. The research process e. Including his or her own interpretation Ans: D 7. Postpositivist research has which of the following characteristics: a. Multiple realities b. Collaboration with participants c.
Focus on subjective meanings d.
Belief in multiple perspectives e. Focus on cause and effect Ans: E 8. Social constructivism has as its main focus: a.
Participant views of a situation b. Determining proper research methods c. Finding the truth d. Cause and effect e.
Simplicity of concepts Ans: A 9. In a social constructivist research project, the research focuses on broad and general questions so that: a. The participants do not become confused b. The true purpose of the study is disguised c. To keep the participant from guessing the orientation of the researcher d. So participants can construct their own meanings e.
To clarify philosophical points Ans: D One aim of transformative research is: a. Helping individuals free themselves from constraints b. Understanding the world view of a participant c. Conducting objective data-gathering d.
Exploring and retelling the story of participants e. Confirming a hypothesis Ans: A Which of the following is the most likely research goal for a postmodern researcher? To examine cause and effect b. To solve real-world problems c. To employ multiple methods d. To understand meaning e. To change ways of thinking Ans: E Philosophical epistemologies b. Concealed hierarchies c.
Action plans d. Epistemological distance e. Preexisting hypotheses Ans: B A transformative researcher would be interested in ensuring: a. Co-created findings with participants b. Researcher biases are controlled c. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are used d. A singularity reality is pursued e. Complexities of identify are explored Ans: A They are an epistemological stance.
They are ways of conducting action research. They are knowledge claims apart from context. They are universal truths existing apart from social conditions. Ans: E This interpretive framework is methodologically agnostic: a. Postmodernist b. Positivist c. Pragmatic d.
Transformative e. Feminist Ans: C Pragmatism in qualitative research focuses on: a.
Outcomes b. Hierarchies c. Philosophical assumptions d. Freeing oppressed groups e. Examination of media biases Ans: A A leading writer of feminist qualitative studies is: a. Creswell b.
Strauss c. Lather d. QuinnPatton e. Schwandt Ans: C Critical theorists are concerned with: a. Empowering human beings b. Examining individual life stories c. Methodology d. Gender identity e. Getting a study done most practically Ans: A Critical race theory is concerned with: a. Eradication of racial subjugation b. Mainly the use of ethnography d.
The identification of indigenous groups Ans: A Queer theory is concerned with: a. How mainstream heterosexuality is critiqued b.