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The contents of the publication “Best LIFE Environment Projects ” do not necessarily reflect experience rather clearly: although the students were quite . PDF | The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes. Environmental education activities for primary schools: suggestions for making and using low cost equipment. Collation: 99 p., illus. Language: English.
Main articles: Environmental policy of India and Indian environmental law British rule of India saw several laws related to environment. The Indian Penal Code of , imposed a fine on anyone who voluntarily fouls the water of any public spring or reservoir. In addition, the Code penalised negligent acts. British India also enacted laws aimed at controlling air pollution. Whilst these laws failed in having the intended effect, British-enacted legislations pioneered the growth of environmental regulations in India.
Acid rain can turn lakes acidic, killing fishes and other animals. Effects on the Environment Water pollution can have disastrous effects on the environment. Pollution in the water can reach a point where there isn't enough oxygen in the water for the fish to breathe. The fish can actually suffocate!
Sometimes pollution affects the entire food chain. Small fishes absorb pollutants, such as chemicals, into their bodies. Then bigger fishes eat the smaller fishes and get the pollutants too. Birds or other animals may eat the bigger fishes and be harmed by the pollutants. One example of this was the use of the insecticide bug killer DDT.
When birds of prey ate fishes that were infected with it, they would lay eggs with thin shells. The population of birds of prey began to drop until DDT was banished. Sewage can also cause major problems in rivers. Bacteria in the water will use oxygen to break down the sewage. If there is too much sewage, the bacteria could use up so much oxygen that there won't be enough left for the fish.
Water pollution from major events like acid rain or oil spills can completely destroy marine habitats. Water pollution warning sign Effects on Health One of the most precious and important commodities for life on planet Earth is clean water.
For over 1 billion people on the planet, clean water is nearly impossible to get. Dirty, polluted water can make them sick and is especially tough on young children.
Some bacteria and pathogens in water can make people so sick they can die.
Types of Water Pollutants There are many sources of water pollution. Here are a few of the major causes: Sewage - Even today sewage is flushed directly into streams and rivers in many areas around the world. Sewage can introduce harmful bacteria that can make people and animals very sick. Farm animal waste - Waste from large herds of farm animals such as pigs and cows can get into the water supply from the runoff of rain and large storms.
Pesticides and herbicides - Pesticides are often sprayed on crops to kill bugs and herbicides are sprayed to kill weeds. These strong chemicals can get into the water through runoff of rain storms. They can also contaminate rivers and lakes through accidental spills.
Construction, floods, and storms - Silt from construction, earthquakes, floods, and storms can lower the oxygen content in the water and suffocate fish. It is suggested that India's growing population is the primary cause of India's environmental degradation. Systematic studies challenge this theory. Empirical evidence from countries such as Japan, England and Singapore, each with population density similar to or higher than that of India, yet each enjoying environmental quality vastly superior to India's, suggests population density may not be the only factor affecting India's issues by ronald.
It causes soil erosion, destruction of wetlands and wide migration of solid wastes. Major environmental issues are forest and agricultural degradation of land, resource depletion such as water, mineral, forest, sand, and rocks , environmental degradation , public health, loss of biodiversity , loss of resilience in ecosystems, livelihood security for the poor.
Rapid urbanization has caused a buildup of heavy metals in the soil of the city of Ghaziabad , and these metals are being ingested through contaminated vegetables.
Heavy metals are hazardous to people's health and are known carcinogens. There is a long history of study and debate about the interactions between population growth and the environment.
According to a British thinker Malthus , for example, a growing population exerts pressure on agricultural land, causing environmental degradation, and forcing the cultivation of land of higher as well as poorer quality. This environmental degradation ultimately reduces agricultural yields and food availability, famines and diseases and death, thereby reducing the rate of population growth. Population growth, because it can place increased pressure on the assimilative capacity of the environment, is also seen as a major cause of air, water, and solid-waste pollution.
The reslt, Malthus theorised, is an equilibrium population that enjoys low levels of both income and Environmental quality. Malthus suggested positive and preventative forced control of human population, along with abolition of poor laws. Malthus theory, published between and , has been analysed and criticised ever since.
The American thinker Henry George , for example, observed with his characteristic piquancy in dismissing Malthus: "Both the jayhawk and the man eat chickens; but the more jayhawks, the fewer chickens, while the more men, the more chickens.
Massive geometric population growth in the 20th century did not result in a Malthusian catastrophe.
The possible reasons include: increase in human knowledge, rapid increases in productivity, innovation and application of knowledge, general improvements in farming methods industrial agriculture , mechanisation of work tractors , the introduction of high-yield varieties of wheat and other plants Green Revolution , the use of pesticides to control crop pests.
Other data suggest that population density has little correlation to environmental quality and human quality of life. India's population density, in , was about human beings per square kilometre. Many countries with population density similar or higher than India enjoy environmental quality as well as human quality of life far superior than India. India has major water pollution issues.
Discharge of untreated sewage is the single most important cause for pollution of surface and ground water in India. There is a large gap between generation and treatment of domestic waste water in India. The problem is not only that India lacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the sewage treatment plants that are exist do not operate and are not maintained. The waste water generated in these areas normally percolates in the soil or evaporates. The uncollected wastes accumulate in the urban areas cause unhygienic conditions and release pollutants that leaches to surface and groundwater.
Over Indian cities dump untreated sewage directly into the Ganges River. Fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture in northwest have been found in rivers, lakes and ground water. Agricultural productivity is dependent on irrigation.
A collapse of agricultural output and severe shortages of potable water may influence million residents in India. Surveys suggest over million households in India use such stoves chullahs every day, 2—3 times a day. It is a major source of air pollution in India , and produces smoke and numerous indoor air pollutants at concentrations 5 times higher than coal.
Clean burning fuels and electricity are unavailable in rural parts and small towns of India because of poor rural highways and limited energy generation infrastructure.
Air pollution in India is a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. Air pollution is also the main cause of the Asian brown cloud , which is causing the monsoon to be delayed. India is the world's largest consumer of fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass for energy purposes.
Fuel wood, agri waste and biomass cake burning releases over million tonnes of combustion products into India's indoor and outdoor air every year.
Approximately million tons of crop residue is burnt in open, releasing smoke, soot, NOx, SOx, PAHs and particulate matter into the air. This burning has been found to be a leading cause of smog and haze problems through the winter over Punjab, cities such as Delhi, and major population centers along the rivers through West Bengal.
Vehicle emissions are worsened by fuel adulteration and poor fuel combustion efficiencies from traffic congestion and low density of quality, high speed road network per people.