PDF | Human trafficking is a vicious crime against a person's human rights and has been denoted as a form of modern-day slavery. Globally, it has become a. indicators neither proves nor disproves that human trafficking is taking place, their Victims of trafficking in humans can be found in a variety of situations. The root causes of trafficking are various and often differ from one country to another. Trafficking is a complex OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings. Recommended portal7.info portal7.info
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Human trafficking has received increasing global attention over the past decade. Initially, trafficking of women and girls for forced sex work and, to a lesser extent. Violations of human rights are both a cause and a consequence of trafficking Human trafficking is generally understood to refer to the process through. PDF | Human trafficking can be traced back to the dawn of civilisation and it has economic, business and societal roots. Over the last half-century, human rights.
Number , September Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. This hidden population involves the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotel and restaurant businesses, domestic workers, marriage brokers, and some adoption firms. The exploitation of people of any race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity is unacceptable at any time, in any place. The members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists should be aware of this problem and strive to recognize and assist their patients who are victims or who have been victims of human trafficking. Background Human trafficking is defined as "the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery" 1.
Evidence suggests that when victims do not fit the stereotypical definition of THB as defined by law enforcement officials, they may not be identified as victims and may be labeled as criminals. It is not mandatory to report patients likely to be a victim of human trafficking, unless the patient is under 18 years. Nevertheless, dentists could be the first health care providers to assist and identify possible victims of THB and for this reason they have an ethical obligation to share some of the confidential information and clinical findings with law enforcement agencies.
The breaching of confidentiality in these cases as may occur with other criminal activities has two reasons: the need to protect victims of this crime and assist them to move on to a safer and healthier life, and the need to collaborate with law enforcement agencies in the investigation which may lead to identifying the criminal organizations involved.
In child abuse cases, 14 human trafficking requires a particular sensitivity, which cannot be gained without training and experience in the area of behavioral and forensic science. In addition, the different cultures and nationalities involved in international THB and migration require extra experience and training in community dentistry and intercultural knowledge and learning to understand both the differences and similarities in habits, attitudes and behavior and the cultural background of each patient.
To combat human trafficking, the police investigation needs the maximum support of the victims to provide evidence against traffickers. In order to achieve this, the victim must feel safe and protected from the criminal organization, and not just secure from the health care point of view.
The European Court of Human Rights has ruled that trafficking in human beings falls within the scope of Article 4 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and that accordingly, States had a positive obligation to put in place an appropriate legal and administrative framework against trafficking, to take measures to protect victims and to investigate acts of trafficking, including through effective co-operation with other States concerned on criminal matters.
Serving nationally or internationally by volunteering is a rewarding experience which can restore dignity and well being to those individuals who are suffering from exploitation and abuse, or simply because of their refugee status, and can make a difference in the battle against the violation of human rights. As with any other form of abuse, victims of human trafficking frequently come into contact with health professionals owing to injuries and illnesses, but also because of the safe and confidential environment they can offer.
As a consequence, health and dental care providers may be the first responders, and therefore have an ethical obligation to protect, assist and support minors and adults. The basic obligation is to achieve the best oral health for all, whilst always being focused upon human rights and humanitarian principles.
Adequate training in behavioral science and intercultural learning is paramount in order to avoid misunderstandings and increase sensitivity.
The author suggests the establishment of an international working group to study dental and forensic services and then propose a set of actions and recommendations to identify all forms of violations of human rights framed within a dental setting. Footnotes The author declares that he has no conflict of interest. References 1.
Feingold D. Human trafficking. Foreign Policy. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. International seminar on human trafficking in human beings. Child Protection Information Sheet: Trafficking. New York, Available from: www. Kangaspunta K. Mapping the Inhuman Trade. Forum Crime Soc. Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Vienna, Forensic medical examination of victims of trafficking in human beings. Human trafficking and the dental professional. J Am Dent Assoc.
Identification of human trafficking victims in health care settings. Health Hum Rights. Anti-human trafficking manual for criminal justice practitioners, Module 7: Crime scene and physical evidence examinations in trafficking in persons investigations. Am J Forensic Med Pathol.
Human trafficking: Review of educational resources for health professionals. Am J Prev Med. Barrows J, Finger R.
Human trafficking and the healthcare professional. The Polaris Project, a national organization working to address human trafficking by advocating for stronger federal and state laws, operating the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline and providing services to help victims of human trafficking see Resources , provides a set of general and health indicators that can alert a health care practitioner to the signs of a patient who is a possible victim of human trafficking.
Being alert to an unusual dynamic between the patient and her partner often can lead a health care provider to suspect abuse. Finding a way to speak to the patient in the presence of a chaperone and away from the partner is extremely important.
If the patient relates a history of abuse in addition to being the victim of human trafficking, the National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline can be contacted to help determine the next steps to help the victim.
It is useful to have a list of local shelters, safe homes for abused women and children, and contact information ready to give to women in need.
Literature such as posters, brochures, or small pocket cards translated as necessary can be left in bathrooms or waiting areas where women can more discreetly obtain information and resources. If a child is suspected of being involved in abuse, Child Protective Services should be contacted as well as the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children see Resources.
If you think you have a victim of human trafficking in your office, the following is important: Be sensitive every situation is different Make sure you are not putting yourself or your staff in danger 10 Contact the police if you suspect immediate danger to the victim or yourself Offer assistance—Give the patient outreach information, hotline numbers, or both for local services only when patient is alone Give the patient the National Human Trafficking Resource Center NHTRC hotline number only when the patient is alone : Call the NHTRC to report the incident or to locate local victims' services: Only when enough victims are assured of safety can another great challenge be met: identifying and prosecuting the traffickers.
Although organized crime is significantly involved in human trafficking, there are plenty of individuals, sometimes family members of the victims, and small groups running their own exploitation enterprises. Human traffickers are very adept at using modern technology to operate their enterprises—cell phones, web sites, and other electronic devices eg, personal digital assistants and smartphones.
It is often very difficult to keep track of the intended use of myriad web sites on the Internet.
Eliminating Human Trafficking One solution to address human trafficking is eliminating the demand for trafficked individuals. Strategies in the United States to help achieve this goal include workplace regulation and increasing public awareness and consciousness Legislation should focus on the individuals and agencies that condone the trafficking of human beings, rather than criminalizing the victims of such activities. More global goals include improving the livelihoods of communities where residents are targeted for trafficking, and eliminating warfare that causes tragic disruption and exposes large numbers of refugees to the risks of being trafficked.
A unified approach from local, national, and global leadership can result in the changes necessary to decrease the exploitation of victims of human trafficking.
Costs of Human Trafficking Human trafficking takes an immense toll on the quality of human life as well as costs to society. This includes degradation of human rights, poor public health, disrupted families and communities, decreased governance, and diminished social and economic development 3.
Victims of human trafficking require rescue, rehabilitation, and reintegration into society. Safety for Health Care Providers Because traffickers may be involved in organized crime, local gangs, or other trafficking networks, protecting health care providers and staff working with victims is imperative.
See the following suggestions for enhancing the safety practices of physicians, staff, and patients 10 please note the following list includes some general safety measures along with measures that apply to health care providers who may frequently help victims of abuse or human trafficking : Establish a relationship with the local police force and other security personnel.
Obtain a security audit of the office or institution. Review emergency plans periodically. Improve lighting at entrances and in parking areas. Install security cameras, mirrors, and panic buzzers. Install deadbolt or electronic locks.
Importantly, how governments address human trafficking depends heavily on the way authorities perceive the crime. When officials view trafficking as a crime and have a precise understanding of its core elements, they are better equipped to identify and combat it, regardless of the particular scheme the trafficker uses.
Over the last two decades, the international community has benefited from an improved understanding of and response to human trafficking. Working together, governments, NGOs, international organizations, academics, communities, and survivors of human trafficking have built a more complete picture of human trafficking—a picture that rejects a narrow understanding of traffickers and victims, in favor of one that encompasses the full range of ways traffickers exploit their victims.
Despite major progress, a number of countries still struggle with gaps in their domestic legal responses, often because they do not recognize and address human trafficking using the wider view described above. In practice, this may mean that governments overlook certain forms of human trafficking when the conditions do not meet their narrower presumptions.
For example, authorities may not consider men and boys as victims of sex trafficking due to a common misperception that sex traffickers only exploit women and girls. This may also result in governments arresting and prosecuting trafficking victims for the unlawful acts their traffickers compelled them to engage in, instead of offering them the support of protective services. Where this happens, anti-trafficking interventions are inadequate and the potential for productive criminal justice, protection, and prevention efforts is threatened.
This year the TIP Report introduction takes a deeper dive into one such gap, common in many countries around the world, whereby governments concentrate on transnational human trafficking cases at the expense of cases taking place within their borders. This spotlight is not intended to suggest that transnational human trafficking is not also important, or that the many other forms of trafficking that may go unaddressed due to similar oversight are of lesser consequence, but rather to call on governments to ensure they are addressing all forms of human trafficking and finding a balanced approach.
The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of , as amended, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime describe this compelled service using a number of different terms, including involuntary servitude, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor. It should be noted that these numbers are not uniform across regions or even types of human trafficking.
For example, UNODC found that the number of victims identified domestically was high compared to foreign victims in most areas of the world, except for Western and Central Europe, the Middle East, and some countries in East Asia. In addition, the ILO found that victims of sex trafficking more likely faced transnational human trafficking while victims of forced labor typically experienced exploitation in their country of residence. Frequently, human trafficking within a country is found in sectors that are common nearly everywhere, such as the commercial sex industry and others like farming, construction, manufacturing, and mining.
At the same time, instances of human trafficking within a country may be more characteristic of that specific country or region, such as child domestic work or exploitative sham marriages. Indeed, examples vary greatly: Traffickers in Brazil, under the guise of religious mandates, exploit Brazilian victims in forced labor, including on farms and in factories and restaurants, after the victims join certain churches or religious cults.
In Cambodia, a lack of jobs leads some women and girls to leave their homes in rural areas to try to find work in tourist destination cities.