THE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY. THE GOLDEN RULE. I. THERE is perhaps no ethical maxim which has met with such universal commendation as the Golden. Key words: golden rule, ethics of reciprocity, principle of consistency, principle .. Choice_Kirchgaessner/$FILE/ World+Economic+portal7.info; accessed Feb. The Golden Rule. Baha'i: “And if thine eyes be turned towards justice, choose thou for thy neighbor that which thou choosest for thyself.” Lawh'i 'lbn'i Dhib.
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Article (PDF Available) in Think 4(10) · June with 1, Reads The Golden Rule tells me to do unto others as I would have them do unto. PDF | 2+ hours read | The Golden Rule or law of reciprocity is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated. It is a maxim of. PDF | Özet Peace is something desirable and requested by all nations To this end, it introduces the golden rule (treating others as you wish.
Golden Rules of Accounting The Problem with Debit Credit Rules The system of debit and credit is right at the foundation of double entry system of book keeping. It is very useful, however at the same time it is very difficult to use in reality. Understanding the system of debits and credits may require a sophisticated employee. However, no company can afford such ruinous waste of cash for record keeping. It is generally done by clerical staff and people who work at the store. Therefore, golden rules of accounting were devised.
Once, he was challenged by a gentile who asked to be converted under the condition that the Torah be explained to him while he stood on one foot. Hillel accepted him as a candidate for conversion to Judaism but, drawing on Leviticus What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow: This is echoed in the modern preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
To teach us that he who destroys a single soul destroys a whole world and that he who saves a single soul saves a whole world; furthermore, so no race or class may claim a nobler ancestry, saying, 'Our father was born first'; and, finally, to give testimony to the greatness of the Lord, who caused the wonderful diversity of mankind to emanate from one type.
And why was Adam created last of all beings? To teach him humility; for if he be overbearing, let him remember that the little fly preceded him in the order of creation.
Thou shalt not hate thy brother. It is the earliest written version of that concept in a positive form. The stranger who resides with you shall be to you as one of your citizens; you shall love him as yourself, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: On the verse, "Love your fellow as yourself," the classic commentator Rashi quotes from Torat Kohanim, an early Midrashic text regarding the famous dictum of Rabbi Akiva: Christian ethics and Great Commandment According to Simon Blackburn, although the Golden Rule "can be found in some form in almost every ethical tradition", the rule is "sometimes claimed by Christianity as its own".
This is the meaning of the law of Moses and the teaching of the prophets" Matthew 7: The common English phrasing is "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you". A similar form appeared in a Catholic catechism around certainly in the reprint of Leviticus Love your neighbor as you love yourself. Love foreigners as you love yourselves, because you were foreigners one time in Egypt. I am the Lord your God.
When asked to sum up the entire Torah concisely, he answered: That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn.
Matthew 7: This is the meaning of the law of Moses and the teaching of the prophets. Luke 6: A similar passage, a parallel to the Great Commandment, is Luke Love him with all your strength and with all your mind.
The passage in the book of Luke then continues with Jesus answering the question, "Who is my neighbor? Jesus' teaching goes beyond the negative formulation of not doing what one would not like done to themselves, to the positive formulation of actively doing good to another that, if the situations were reversed, one would desire that the other would do for them. This formulation, as indicated in the parable of the Good Samaritan, emphasizes the needs for positive action that brings benefit to another, not simply restraining oneself from negative activities that hurt another.
Taken as a rule of judgment, both formulations of the golden rule, the negative and positive, are equally applicable. Galatians 5: Islam The Golden Rule is implicitly expressed in some verses of the Quran, and is explicitly declared in the sayings of Muhammad. A common transliteration is: This can be translated as "Wish for your brother, what you wish for yourself" or "Love for your brother what you love for yourself".
From the Quran: Do you not like God to forgive you? And Allah is The Merciful Forgiving. And those who are concerned about the welfare of their own children after their death, should have fear of God [Treat other people's Orphans justly] and guide them properly. Spend [benevolently] of the good things that you have earned A Bedouin came to the prophet, grabbed the stirrup of his camel and said: O the messenger of God!
Teach me something to go to heaven with it. Prophet said: Now let the stirrup go! Thus, you should desire for others what you desire for yourself and hate for others what you hate for yourself. Do not oppress as you do not like to be oppressed. Do good to others as you would like good to be done to you. Regard bad for yourself whatever you regard bad for others. Accept that treatment from others which you would like others to accept from you Do not say to others what you do not like to be said to you.
Deny not My servant should he ask anything from thee, for his face is My face; be then abashed before Me. This, in brief, is the rule of dharma. Other behavior is due to selfish desires. Buddhism Buddha Siddhartha Gautama, c. It occurs in many places and in many forms throughout the Tripitaka. Comparing oneself to others in such terms as "Just as I am so are they, just as they are so am I," he should neither kill nor cause others to kill.
Violence Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful. As part of the prohibition of causing any living beings to suffer, Jainism forbids inflicting upon others what is harmful to oneself.
The following quotation from the Acaranga Sutra sums up the philosophy of Jainism: Nothing which breathes, which exists, which lives, or which has essence or potential of life, should be destroyed or ruled over, or subjugated, or harmed, or denied of its essence or potential.
In support of this Truth, I ask you a question — "Is sorrow or pain desirable to you? If you say, "No, It is not" you will be expressing the truth. Just as sorrow or pain is not desirable to you, so it is to all which breathe, exist, live or have any essence of life. To you and all, it is undesirable, and painful, and repugnant.
Knowing this principle of equality treat other with respect and compassion. He who desires his own good, should avoid causing any harm to a living being.
Sikhism and Karma Precious like jewels are the minds of all. To hurt them is not at all good. If thou desirest thy Beloved, then hurt thou not anyone's heart. It should be noted, however, that the phraseology differs from the Christian version of the Golden Rule. It does not presume to do anything unto others, but merely to avoid doing what would be harmful. It does not preclude doing good deeds and taking moral positions, but there is slim possibility for a Confucian missionary outlook, such as one can justify with the Christian Golden Rule.
Taoism See also: Taoism The sage has no interest of his own, but takes the interests of the people as his own. He is kind to the kind; he is also kind to the unkind: He is faithful to the faithful; he is also faithful to the unfaithful: And so if states and cities do not attack one another and families do not wreak havoc upon and steal from one another, would this be a harm to the world or a benefit?
Of course one must say it is a benefit to the world. New religious movements Wicca See also: Wicca Here ye these words and heed them well, the words of Dea, thy Mother Goddess, "I command thee thus, O children of the Earth, that that which ye deem harmful unto thyself, the very same shall ye be forbidden from doing unto another, for violence and hatred give rise to the same. My command is thus, that ye shall return all violence and hatred with peacefulness and love, for my Law is love unto all things.
Only through love shall ye have peace; yea and verily, only peace and love will cure the world, and subdue all evil. Try not to do things to others that you would not like them to do to you.
Try to treat others as you would want them to treat you. Humanism Many different sources claim the Golden Rule as a humanist principle: Empathy is at the root of kindness, compassion, understanding and respect — qualities that we all appreciate being shown, whoever we are, whatever we think and wherever we come from. Moral directives do not need to be complex or obscure to be worthwhile, and in fact, it is precisely this rule's simplicity which makes it great.
It is easy to come up with, easy to understand, and easy to apply, and these three things are the hallmarks of a strong and healthy moral system. The idea behind it is readily graspable: If you would not want to be in such a position, the other person probably would not either, and so you should not do it.
It is the basic and fundamental human trait of empathy, the ability to vicariously experience how another is feeling, that makes this possible, and it is the principle of empathy by which we should live our lives.
But not a single one of these versions of the golden rule requires a God". For in effect, of all the actions a man may take in order to create himself as he wills to be, there is not one which is not creative, at the same time, of an image of man such as he believes he ought to be. To choose between this or that is at the same time to affirm the value of that which is chosen; for we are unable ever to choose the worse. What we choose is always the better; and nothing can be better for us unless it is better for all.
Bornstein, and William E. Paden, the Golden Rule is arguably the most essential basis for the modern concept of human rights, in which each individual has a right to just treatment, and a reciprocal responsibility to ensure justice for others.
The development of human "rights" is a modern political ideal that began as a philosophical concept promulgated through the philosophy of Jean Jacques Rousseau in 18th century France, among others. His writings influenced Thomas Jefferson, who then incorporated Rousseau's reference to "inalienable rights" into the United States Declaration of Independence in Damrosch argued that to confuse the Golden Rule with human rights is to apply contemporary thinking to ancient concepts.
Richard Swift, referring to ideas from David Graeber, suggests that "without some kind of reciprocity society would no longer be able to exist. Swift writes: So why shouldn't we make the principle of generous reciprocity, so present in everyday interactions, the basis of economic life rather than the current model of competing egoism? But the Golden Rule in general actually serves as a motivation toward proactive action.
As Frank Crane put it, "The Golden Rule is of no use to you whatsoever unless you realize that it's your move! Silver Rule Since silver traditionally follows gold in importance, many "silver rules" have been created, either as alternatives or complements to the Golden Rule.
Criticism Philosophers, such as Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche, have objected to the rule on a variety of grounds. The most serious among these is its application. How does one know how others want to be treated? The obvious way is to ask them, but this cannot be done if one assumes they have not reached a particular and relevant understanding.
Differences in values or interests Shaw's comment about differing tastes suggests that if your values are not shared with others, the way you want to be treated will not be the way they want to be treated. Hence, the Golden Rule of "do unto others" is "dangerous in the wrong hands," according to philosopher Iain King, because "some fanatics have no aversion to death: Cannot be a sole guide to action In his book How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, philosopher Iain King has argued that " although the idea of mirroring your treatment of others with their treatment of you is very widespread indeed… most ancient wisdoms express this negatively — advice on what you should not do, rather than what you should.
The positive formulation, meanwhile, can be "incendiary", since it "can lead to cycles of tit-for-tat reciprocity," unless it is accompanied by a corrective mechanism, such as a concept of forgiveness. Bernard Shaw's remark "Do not do unto others as you would that they should do unto you. Their tastes may be different" is no doubt a smart saying.
But it seems to overlook the fact that "doing as you would be done by" includes taking into account your neighbor's tastes as you would that he should take yours into account. Thus the "golden rule" might still express the essence of a universal morality even if no two men in the world had any needs or tastes in common. In his book on the golden rule, Jeffrey Wattles makes the similar observation that such objections typically arise while applying the golden rule in certain general ways namely, ignoring differences in taste, in situation, and so forth.
But if we apply the golden rule to our own method of using it, asking in effect if we would want other people to apply the golden rule in such ways, the answer would typically be no, since it is quite predictable that others' ignoring of such factors will lead to behavior which we object to.
It follows that we should not do so ourselves—according to the golden rule. In this way, the golden rule may be self- correcting. We would often want other people to ignore any prejudice against our race or nationality when deciding how to act towards us, but would also want them to not ignore our differing preferences in food, desire for aggressiveness, and so on.
The platinum rule, and perhaps other variants, might also be self-correcting in this same manner. Scientific research Further information: Reciprocity social psychology and Reciprocal altruism There has been research published arguing that some 'sense' of fair play and the Golden Rule may be stated and rooted in terms of neuroscientific and neuroethical principles.
A Dictionary of Philosophy. ISBN This dictionary of philosophy contains the following exact quote under the entry for "golden rule": Various expressions of the rule are to be found in tenets of most religions and creeds through the ages, testifying to its universal applicability. Instead, he posits, it "express[es] the essence of a universal morality.
The Concept of Morals. New York: Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. Simon Blackburn also notes the connection between Confucius and the Golden Rule. Simon, Blackburn A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. Good Without God: The Golden Rule. New Internationalist. The Golden Rule as the Law of Nature. Jacob Neusner, Bruce Chilton Hrsg. Ethics and the Golden Rule. Brooklyn Slaves", The Stoic Philosophy of Seneca.
Retrieved 12 September Retrieved 17 July The Torah. Jewish Publication Society. See also Talmud Yerushalmi, Nedarim 9: Emory University. Archived from the original on 7 April Manchester, England: In the first Table be three Commandments: They forbid idolatry, apostasy, heresy, superstition, perjury, blasphemy, and move us to the pure and true worshipping of God in heart, word and deed.
In the Second table be seven Commandments, which command us to give reverence and honor to every man in his degree, to profit all, and hurt none: Studies in Muslim Ethics, p. Archived from the original on 11 April Harris enabling. Sagarmal Jain, ed. Tukol and K. New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. Wei Ling Gong, see number 24 ". Chinese Text Project. Retrieved 29 December Ron The Way to Happiness. The Way to Happiness Foundation International.
Retrieved 22 April The Way to Happiness: Los Angeles: Ron Hubbard Library. The first line reads, "We must treat others as we wish others to treat us. Archived from the original on 14 September Think Humanism. Italics in original. Existentialism Is a Humanism. Yale University Press. Handbook of Parenting. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. See also: Paden, William E. Interpreting the Sacred: Ways of Viewing Religion. Beacon Press. Jean Jacques Russeau: Restless Genius.
Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN p. What 'The Water Babies' can teach us about personal". The Independent. Three Rules of Human Conduct". Christian Courier.
Radically Happy. Cambridge University Press 28 April The Golden Rule". Accessed 20 March Singer, The Ideal of a Rational Morality, p. Dubbed "the platinum rule" in business books such as Charles J. Jacobus, Thomas E. Gillett, Georgia Real Estate: An Introduction to the Profession, Cengage Learning, , p. Christian pacifists state that Jesus himself was a pacifist who taught and practiced pacifism and that his followers must do likewise.
Hennacy believed that adherence to Christianity required not just pacifism but, because governments inevitably threatened or used force to resolve conflicts, anarchism. However, most Christian pacifists, including the peace churches, Christian Peacemaker Teams and individuals such as John Howard Yoder, make no claim to be anarchists.
Lind explains the theology of warfare in ancient Israel as God directing the people of Israel to trust in Him, not in the warring way of the nations, and to seek peace not coercive power. Stephen B. Chapman expresses the Old Testament describes God's divine intervention, not human power politics, or the warring king, as key to the preservation of Israel.
Lind asserts the Old Testament reflects that God occasionally sanctions, even commands wars to the point of God actually fighting utilizing the forces of nature, miraculous acts or other nations. Lind further argues God fights so that Israel doesn't have to fight wars like other nations because God delivers them. Pacifist, John Howard Yoder explains God sustained and directed his community not by power politics but by the creative power of God's word, of speaking through the law and the prophets.
Stephen Vantassel contends the Old Testament exists to put the issue of war and killing in historical and situational context. Chapman, associate professor of Old Testament at Duke University asserts God used war to conquer and provide the Promised Land to Israel, and then to defend that land.
The Old Testament explains that Israel does not have to fight wars like other nations because God delivers them. In Exodus Craige, during the military conquests of the Promised Land, the Israelites fought in real wars against real human enemies, however it was God who granted them victory in their battles.
John Howard Yoder affirms as long as Israel trusted and followed God, God would work His power through Israel to drive occupants from lands God willed them to occupy Exodus Jacob Enz describes God's plan was to use the nation of Israel for a higher purpose, and that purpose was to be the mediator between all the peoples and God. Man's role is to be a steward who should take care of all of God's creation, and that includes protecting human life. Peter Craige explains God's self-revelation through His participating in human history is referred to as "Salvation History.
God participates in human history by acting through people and in the world that is both in need of salvation, and is thus imperfect. God participates in the human activity of war through sinful human beings for His purpose of bringing salvation to the world. War is considered evil. God's participation through evil human activity such as war, was for the sole purposes of both redemption and judgment.
The Old Testament points to a time when weapons of war shall be transformed into the instruments of peace, and the hope for the consummation of the Kingdom of God when there will be no more war.
Wood points to the scriptures of Isaiah and Micah Isaiah 2: If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.
I do not wish to be a king; I am not anxious to be rich; I decline military command Die to the world, repudiating the madness that is in it. And they comfort their oppressors and make them their friends; they do good to their enemies….
Through love towards their oppressors, they persuade them to become Christians. If he is unwilling to comply, he must be rejected for baptism. A military commander or civic magistrate must resign or be rejected. If a believer seeks to become a soldier, he must be rejected, for he has despised God.
And yet Moses carried a rod, and Aaron wore a buckle, and John Baptist is girt with leather and Joshua the son of Nun leads a line of march; and the People warred: But how will a Christian man war, nay, how will he serve even in peace, without a sword, which the Lord has taken away?
No dress is lawful among us, if assigned to any unlawful action. Concerning Military Service For since we, a numerous band of men as we are, have learned from His teaching and His laws that evil ought not to be requited with evil, that it is better to suffer wrong than to inflict it, that we should rather shed our own blood than stain our hands and our conscience with that of another, an ungrateful world is now for a long period enjoying a benefit from Christ, inasmuch as by His means the rage of savage ferocity has been softened, and has begun to withhold hostile hands from the blood of a fellow-creature.
VI Consider the roads blocked up by robbers, the seas beset with pirates, wars scattered all over the earth with the bloody horror of camps. The whole world is wet with mutual blood; and murder, which in the case of an individual is admitted to be a crime, is called a virtue when it is committed wholesale.
They felt the force of this example of pity. As a result, many of them were added to the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ and threw off the belt of military service. Hence he ought to be poor in spirit, and look at Him who for our sake became poor of His own will; let him consider that we are all equal by nature, and not exalt himself impertinently against his own race[ Some scholars believe that "the accession of Constantine terminated the pacifist period in church history. Martin, who was serving as a soldier, declared in "I am a soldier of Christ.
I cannot fight. The Scriptures teach that there are two opposing princes and two opposing kingdoms: Each of these princes has his particular kingdom and as the prince is so is also the kingdom.
The Prince of peace is Christ Jesus ; His kingdom is the kingdom of peace, which is His church; His messengers are the messengers of peace; His Word is the word of peace; His body is the body of peace; His children are the seed of peace.
We shall meet your physical force with soul force. Do to us what you will, and we shall continue to love you. Courage without love and wisdom is foolhardiness, as with the ordinary soldier. Therefore one who has love, courage, and wisdom is the one in a million who moves the world, as with Jesus, Buddha, and Gandhi. A number of Christian denominations have taken pacifist positions institutionally, including the Quakers and Mennonites. The term "historical peace churches" refers to three churches—the Church of the Brethren, the Mennonites and the Quakers—who took part in the first peace church conference, in Kansas in , and who have worked together to represent the view of Christian pacifism.
Christadelphians Although the group had already separated from the Campbellites, a part of the Restoration Movement, after for theological reasons as the "Royal Assembly of Believers", among other names, the "Christadelphians" formed as a church formally in in response to conscription in the American Civil War.
They are one of the few churches to have been legally formed over the issue of Christian pacifism. Unlike Quakers, Christadelphians generally refused all forms of military service, including stretcher bearers and medics, preferring non-uniformed civil hospital service.
They believe the weapons of their warfare to not be carnal but spiritual II Corinthians This was confirmed by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in The first was the interdenominational Fellowship of Reconciliation "FoR" , founded in Britain in but soon joined by sister organizations in the U.
Today pacifist organizations serving specific denominations are more or less closely allied with the FoR: However, they share historical and philosophical roots in Christian pacifism. In some cases Christian churches, even if not necessarily committed to Christian pacifism, have supported particular campaigns of nonviolent resistance, also often called civil resistance.
Examples include the Southern Christian Leadership Conference a grouping of churches in the southern United States in supporting the Civil Rights Movement; the Chilean Catholic Church's support for the civic action against authoritarian rule in Pinochet's Chile in the s; and the Polish Catholic Church's support for the Solidarity movement in Poland in the s.
Human evolution has conditioned us for only the first two of these responses: A Third Way. He was court-martialed at Camp Dodge, Iowa on July 24, , and sentenced to death. This was later revised to 25 years hard labor.
In his early years as a writer of The Necessity of Pacifism and as editor of the weekly London newspaper, Peace News, he argued that Nazi Germany, should be allowed retain control of mainland Europe, arguing Nazism was a lesser evil compared to the horrors of a total war. Vera Brittain was another British Christian pacifist.
She worked as a fire warden and by travelling around the country raising funds for the Peace Pledge Union's food relief campaign. She was vilified for speaking out against the saturation bombing of German cities through her booklet Massacre by Bombing. Perspectives on War in the Bible. Mercer University Press.
Holy War in the Bible: Christian Morality and an Old Testament Problem. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Yahweh is a Warrior. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. The Politics of Jesus. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Erdmans Publishing. Retrieved October 25, The Problem of War in the Old Testament. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. The Christian and Warfare: The Roots of Pacifism in the Old Testament. Wipf and Stock Publishers. Monotheism, Power, Justice: Collected Old Testament Essays.
Christian pacifism. Daniel Co. Retrieved 25 April Ante-Nicene Fathers. Hilda C. Graef, The Newman Press, London, , pp. Daryl Charles, Between Pacifism and Jihad: Twenty-five lessons from the history of a dangerous idea, pp. Leonard Verduin, ed. John Christian Wenger, Herald Press, , p. Civil rights leader, theologian, orator, Volume 1, David J. Garrow, Carlson Pub. Moskos, John Whiteclay Chambers - "The first conscientious objector in the modern sense appeared in Like all other objectors from then until the s, he was a Quaker.
Wilcox, Seventh-day Adventists in Time of War, p. Retrieved April 16, Gottlieb, Liberating Faith: A Third Way, Augsburg Fortress, All Saints: Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved February 24, National Catholic Reporter.
Jonah House. Hallie, New York: Check date values in: D D Peace Review , vol. The Washington Post. An Initial Declaration is an interfaith declaration full title: Drawing on many of the world's religious, spiritual, and cultural traditions, the declaration identifies the Golden Rule: What you wish done to yourself, do to others! Commitment to a culture of non-violence and respect for life 2.
Commitment to a culture of solidarity and a just economic order 3. Commitment to a culture of tolerance and a life of truthfulness 4. Since it has been signed by thousands more leaders and individuals around the world. As such, it established a common ground for people to agree and to cooperate for the good of all.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and affirms their ability to improve their lives through the use of reason and ingenuity as opposed to submitting blindly to tradition and authority or sinking into cruelty and brutality.
Niethammer had wished to introduce into German education the humane values of ancient Greece and Rome. Niethhammer was a Lutheran theologian. Since the twentieth century, however, Anglophone humanist movements have usually been aligned with secularism, and today humanism typically refers to a non-theistic life stance centred on human agency and looking to science rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world.
However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning literally "good letters".
Those who earnestly desire and seek after these are most highly humanized.
Gellius maintains that this common usage is wrong, and that model writers of Latin, such as Cicero and others, used the word only to mean what we might call "humane" or "polite" learning, or the Greek equivalent Paideia. Yet in seeking to restrict the meaning of humanitas to literary education this way, Gellius was not advocating a retreat from political engagement into some ivory tower, though it might look like that to us.
He himself was involved in public affairs. According to legal historian Richard Bauman, Gellius was a judge as well as a grammarian and was an active participant the great contemporary debate on harsh punishments that accompanied the legal reforms of Antoninus Pius one these reforms, for example, was that a prisoner was not to be treated as guilty before being tried.
Teachers and scholars of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, and poetry were called and called themselves "humanists". For Cicero, a lawyer, what most distinguished humans from brutes was speech, which, allied to reason, could and should enable them to settle disputes and live together in concord and harmony under the rule of law. The designation Religious Humanism refers to organized groups that sprang up during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in They identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reason, ethics, and social and economic justice, and they called for science to replace dogma and the supernatural as the basis of morality and decision-making.
The coinage gained universal acceptance in , when German historian and philologist Georg Voigt used humanism to describe Renaissance humanism, the movement that flourished in the Italian Renaissance to revive classical learning, a use which won wide acceptance among historians in many nations, especially Italy. In , the author of an anonymous article in a French Enlightenment periodical spoke of "The general love of humanity After the French Revolution, the idea that human virtue could be created by human reason alone independently from traditional religious institutions, attributed by opponents of the Revolution to Enlightenment philosophes such as Rousseau, was violently attacked by influential religious and political conservatives, such as Edmund Burke and Joseph de Maistre, as a deification or idolatry of humanity.
The Oxford English Dictionary records the use of the word "humanism" by an English clergyman in to indicate those who believe in the "mere humanity" as opposed to the divine nature of Christ, i.
Thoughts on " —49 , states: There has been a persistent confusion between the several uses of the terms: Nasadiya Sukta, a passage in the Rig Veda, contains one of the first recorded assertions of agnosticism. Zarathustra's philosophy in the Gathas lays out a conception of humankind as thinking beings, dignified with choice and agency according to the intellect which each receives from Ahura Mazda God in the form of supreme wisdom.
The idea of Ahura Mazda as a non- intervening deistic god or Great Architect of the Universe was combined with a unique eschatology and ethical system which implied that each person is held morally responsible in the afterlife, for their choices they freely made in life. Ancient China Main article: Chinese philosophy In China, Yellow Emperor is regarded as the humanistic primogenitor. His words were recorded in the Book of History as follows translation: Heaven or "God" is not believable.
Our Tao special term referring to "the way of nature" includes morality derived from the philosophy of former sage kings and to be continued forward. In the 6th century BCE, Taoist teacher Lao Tzu espoused a series of naturalistic concepts with some elements of humanistic philosophy. Humanistic thought is also contained in other Confucian classics, e.
So, to sage kings, people first, gods second"; Neishi Guo says, "Gods, clever, righteous and wholehearted, comply with human.
Ancient Greece 6th-century BCE pre-Socratic Greek philosophers Thales of Miletus and Xenophanes of Colophon were the first in the region to attempt to explain the world in terms of human reason rather than myth and tradition, thus can be said to be the first Greek humanists. Thales questioned the notion of anthropomorphic gods and Xenophanes refused to recognise the gods of his time and reserved the divine for the principle of unity in the universe.
These Ionian Greeks were the first thinkers to assert that nature is available to be studied separately from the supernatural realm. Anaxagoras brought philosophy and the spirit of rational inquiry from Ionia to Athens.
Pericles, the leader of Athens during the period of its greatest glory was an admirer of Anaxagoras. Other influential pre-Socratics or rational philosophers include Protagoras like Anaxagoras a friend of Pericles , known for his famous dictum "man is the measure of all things" and Democritus, who proposed that matter was composed of atoms.
Little of the written work of these early philosophers survives and they are known mainly from fragments and quotations in other writers, principally Plato and Aristotle. The historian Thucydides, noted for his scientific and rational approach to history, is also much admired by later humanists.
He was also the first Greek philosopher to admit women to his school as a rule. Medieval Islam Many medieval Muslim thinkers pursued humanistic, rational and scientific discourses in their search for knowledge, meaning and values. A wide range of Islamic writings on love, poetry, history and philosophical theology show that medieval Islamic thought was open to the humanistic ideas of individualism, occasional secularism, skepticism, and liberalism.
Now that you are safe and free to say whatever you please appoint some arbitrator who will impartially judge between us and lean only towards the truth and be free from the empery of passion, and that arbitrator shall be Reason, whereby God makes us responsible for our own rewards and punishments. Herein I have dealt justly with you and have given you full security and am ready to accept whatever decision Reason may give for me or against me.
For "There is no compulsion in religion" Qur'an 2: Peace be with you and the blessings of God! According to George Makdisi, certain aspects of Renaissance humanism has its roots in the medieval Islamic world, including the "art of dictation, called in Latin, ars dictaminis", and "the humanist attitude toward classical language". The 19th-century German historian Georg Voigt —91 identified Petrarch as the first Renaissance humanist. Paul Johnson agrees that Petrarch was "the first to put into words the notion that the centuries between the fall of Rome and the present had been the age of Darkness".
According to Petrarch, what was needed to remedy this situation was the careful study and imitation of the great classical authors. For Petrarch and Boccaccio, the greatest master was Cicero, whose prose became the model for both learned Latin and vernacular Italian prose. Once the language was mastered grammatically it could be used to attain the second stage, eloquence or rhetoric.
This art of persuasion [Cicero had held] was not art for its own sake, but the acquisition of the capacity to persuade others — all men and women — to lead the good life. As Petrarch put it, 'it is better to will the good than to know the truth'. Rhetoric thus led to and embraced philosophy. Leonardo Bruni c. One of Petrarch's followers, Coluccio Salutati — was made chancellor of Florence, "whose interests he defended with his literary skill. A modern historian has this to say: Humanism was not an ideological programme but a body of literary knowledge and linguistic skill based on the "revival of good letters", which was a revival of a late-antique philology and grammar, This is how the word "humanist" was understood by contemporaries, and if scholars would agree to accept the word in this sense rather than in the sense in which it was used in the nineteenth century we might be spared a good deal of useless argument.
That humanism had profound social and even political consequences of the life of Italian courts is not to be doubted. But the idea that as a movement it was in some way inimical to the Church, or to the conservative social order in general is one that has been put forward for a century and more without any substantial proof being offered.
The nineteenth-century historian Jacob Burckhardt, in his classic work, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, noted as a "curious fact" that some men of the new culture were "men of the strictest piety, or even ascetics". If he had meditated more deeply on the meaning of the careers of such humanists as Abrogio Traversari — , the General of the Camaldolese Order, perhaps he would not have gone on to describe humanism in unqualified terms as "pagan", and thus helped precipitate a century of infertile debate about the possible existence of something called "Christian humanism" which ought to be opposed to "pagan humanism".
The umanisti criticised what they considered the barbarous Latin of the universities, but the revival of the humanities largely did not conflict with the teaching of traditional university subjects, which went on as before. By analogy with what they saw as decline of Latin, they applied the principle of ad fontes, or back to the sources, across broad areas of learning, seeking out manuscripts of Patristic literature as well as pagan authors.
In , while employed in Naples at the court of Alfonso V of Aragon at the time engaged in a dispute with the Papal States the humanist Lorenzo Valla used stylistic textual analysis, now called philology, to prove that the Donation of Constantine, which purported to confer temporal powers on the Pope of Rome, was an 8th-century forgery.
Instead, after the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Turks in , which brought a flood of Greek Orthodox refugees to Italy, humanist scholars increasingly turned to the study of Neoplatonism and Hermeticism, hoping to bridge the differences between the Greek and Roman Churches, and even between Christianity itself and the non-Christian world. After , when the new invention of printing made these texts widely available, the Dutch humanist Erasmus, who had studied Greek at the Venetian printing house of Aldus Manutius, began a philological analysis of the Gospels in the spirit of Valla, comparing the Greek originals with their Latin translations with a view to correcting errors and discrepancies in the latter.
Henceforth Renaissance humanism, particularly in the German North, became concerned with religion, while Italian and French humanism concentrated increasingly on scholarship and philology addressed to a narrow audience of specialists, studiously avoiding topics that might offend despotic rulers or which might be seen as corrosive of faith. Consequences The ad fontes principle also had many applications. The re-discovery of ancient manuscripts brought a more profound and accurate knowledge of ancient philosophical schools such as Epicureanism, and Neoplatonism, whose Pagan wisdom the humanists, like the Church fathers of old, tended, at least initially, to consider as deriving from divine revelation and thus adaptable to a life of Christian virtue.
Richard Bauman writes: Homo sum: The words of the comic playwright P. Terence, an African and a former slave, was well placed to preach the message of universalism, of the essential unity of the human race, that had come down in philosophical form from the Greeks, but needed the pragmatic muscles of Rome in order to become a practical reality.
The influence of Terence's felicitous phrase on Roman thinking about human rights can hardly be overestimated. Two hundred years later Seneca ended his seminal exposition of the unity of humankind with a clarion-call: There is one short rule that should regulate human relationships. All that you see, both divine and human, is one. We are parts of the same great body.
Nature created us from the same source and to the same end. She imbued us with mutual affection and sociability, she taught us to be fair and just, to suffer injury rather than to inflict it. She bid us extend our hands to all in need of help. Let that well-known line be in our heart and on our lips: Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto. This was despite what A. Crombie viewing the Renaissance in the 19th-century manner as a chapter in the heroic March of Progress calls "a backwards-looking admiration for antiquity", in which Platonism stood in opposition to the Aristotelian concentration on the observable properties of the physical world.
However, by the mid-to-late 16th century, even the universities, though still dominated by Scholasticism, began to demand that Aristotle be read in accurate texts edited according to the principles of Renaissance philology, thus setting the stage for Galileo's quarrels with the outmoded habits of Scholasticism.
Just as artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci — partaking of the zeitgeist though not himself a humanist — advocated study of human anatomy, nature, and weather to enrich Renaissance works of art, so Spanish-born humanist Juan Luis Vives c. The humanistic school, animated by the idea that the study of classical languages and literature provided valuable information and intellectual discipline as well as moral standards and a civilised taste for future rulers, leaders, and professionals of its society, flourished without interruption, through many significant changes, until our own century, surviving many religious, political and social revolutions.
It has but recently been replaced, though not yet completely, by other more practical and less demanding forms of education. They inveighed against the abuses of the Church, but not against the Church itself, much less against religion.
For them, the word "secular" carried no connotations of disbelief — that would come later, in the nineteenth century. In the Renaissance to be secular meant simply to be in the world rather than in a monastery. Petrarch frequently admitted that his brother Gherardo's life as a Carthusian monk was superior to his own although Petrarch himself was in Minor Orders and was employed by the Church all his life.
He hoped that he could do some good by winning earthly glory and praising virtue, inferior though that might be to a life devoted solely to prayer. By embracing a non-theistic philosophic base, however, the methods of the humanists, combined with their eloquence, would ultimately have a corrosive effect on established authority.
Yet it was from the Renaissance that modern Secular Humanism grew, with the development of an important split between reason and religion. This occurred as the church's complacent authority was exposed in two vital areas. In science, Galileo's support of the Copernican revolution upset the church's adherence to the theories of Aristotle, exposing them as false.
In theology, the Dutch scholar Erasmus with his new Greek text showed that the Roman Catholic adherence to Jerome's Vulgate was frequently in error. A tiny wedge was thus forced between reason and authority, as both of them were then understood. This was the main divisive line between the Reformation and the Renaissance, which dealt with the same basic problems, supported the same science based on reason and empirical research, but had a different set of presuppositions theistic versus naturalistic.
According to Tony Davies: Paine called himself a theophilanthropist, a word combining the Greek for "God", "love", and "humanity", and indicating that while he believed in the existence of a creating intelligence in the universe, he entirely rejected the claims made by and for all existing religious doctrines, especially their miraculous, transcendental and salvationist pretensions. The Parisian "Society of Theophilanthropy" which he sponsored, is described by his biographer as "a forerunner of the ethical and humanist societies that proliferated later" The two themes converged and competed in complex ways in the 19th century and beyond, and between them set the boundaries of its various humanisms.
She wrote to a friend: Comte had proposed an atheistic culte founded on human principles — a secular Religion of Humanity which worshiped the dead, since most humans who have ever lived are dead , complete with holidays and liturgy, modeled on the rituals of what was seen as a discredited and dilapidated Catholicism. Comte's austere vision of the universe, his injunction to "vivre pour altrui" "live for others", from which comes the word "altruism" , and his idealisation of women inform the works of Victorian novelists and poets from George Eliot and Matthew Arnold to Thomas Hardy.
The British Humanistic Religious Association was formed as one of the earliest forerunners of contemporary chartered Humanist organisations in in London. This early group was democratically organised, with male and female members participating in the election of the leadership, and promoted knowledge of the sciences, philosophy, and the arts.
Schiller labelled his work "humanism" but for Schiller the term referred to the pragmatist philosophy he shared with William James. Potter was a minister from the Unitarian tradition and in he and his wife, Clara Cook Potter, published Humanism: A New Religion. Bragg asked Roy Wood Sellars to draft a document based on this information which resulted in the publication of the Humanist Manifesto in Potter's book and the Manifesto became the cornerstones of modern humanism, the latter declaring a new religion by saying, "any religion that can hope to be a synthesising and dynamic force for today must be shaped for the needs of this age.
To establish such a religion is a major necessity of the present. In , the American Humanist Association was organised. Noted members of The AHA included Isaac Asimov, who was the president from until his death in , and writer Kurt Vonnegut, who followed as honorary president until his death in Gore Vidal became honorary president in Robert Buckman was the head of the association in Canada, and is now an honorary president.
Types Scholarly tradition Renaissance humanists Main article: Renaissance humanism "Renaissance humanism" is the name later given to a tradition of cultural and educational reform engaged in by civic and ecclesiastical chancellors, book collectors, educators, and writers, who by the late fifteenth century began to be referred to as umanisti — "humanists". Scholasticism focused on preparing men to be doctors, lawyers or professional theologians, and was taught from approved textbooks in logic, natural philosophy, medicine, law and theology.
Humanists reacted against this utilitarian approach and the narrow pedantry associated with it. They sought to create a citizenry frequently including women able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions. This was to be accomplished through the study of the studia humanitatis, today known as the humanities: According to the IHEU's bylaw 5.
It stands for the building of a more humane society through an ethic based on human and other natural values in the spirit of reason and free inquiry through human capabilities. It is not theistic, and it does not accept supernatural views of reality.
Religious humanists Main article: Though practitioners of religious humanism did not officially organise under the name of "humanism" until the late 19th and early 20th centuries, non-theistic religions paired with human-centred ethical philosophy have a long history.
A unified Ethical Culture movement was first founded in ; its founder, Felix Adler was a former member of the Free Religious Association, and conceived of Ethical Culture as a new religion that would retain the ethical message at the heart of all religions. Ethical Culture was religious in the sense of playing a defining role in people's lives and addressing issues of ultimate concern. Nowadays religious humanists in the United States are represented by organisations such as the American Ethical Union, and will simply describe themselves as "ethical humanists" or "humanists".
Secular humanists and religious humanists organise together as part of larger national and international groupings, and differentiate themselves primarily in their attitude to the promotion of humanist thinking. Earlier attempts at inventing a secular religious tradition informed the Ethical Culture movement.
The Cult of Reason French: This early group was democratically organised, with male and female members participating in the election of the leadership and promoted knowledge of the sciences, philosophy, and the arts. Early 20th century critics such as Ezra Pound, T. Hulme, and T. Eliot considered humanism to be sentimental "slop" Hulme  or "an old bitch gone in the teeth" Pound  and wanted to go back to a more manly, authoritarian society such as existed in the Middle Ages.
Davies acknowledges that after the horrific experiences of the wars of the 20th century "it should no longer be possible to formulate phrases like 'the destiny of man' or the 'triumph of human reason' without an instant consciousness of the folly and brutality they drag behind them".
For "it is almost impossible to think of a crime that has not been committed in the name of human reason". Yet, he continues, "it would be unwise to simply abandon the ground occupied by the historical humanisms. For one thing humanism remains on many occasions the only available alternative to bigotry and persecution. The freedom to speak and write, to organise and campaign in defence of individual or collective interests, to protest and disobey: However, they stipulate that decisions about right and wrong must be based on the individual and common good, with no consideration given to metaphysical or supernatural beings.
The idea is to engage with what is human. It still remains to be seen whether the same actor can play both parts". Skinner's Behaviorism. The approach emphasizes an individual's inherent drive towards self- actualization and creativity. Psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow introduced a positive, humanistic psychology in response to what they viewed as the overly pessimistic view of psychoanalysis in the early s. Other sources include the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology.
One of humanistic psychology's early sources was the work of Carl Rogers, who was strongly influenced by Otto Rank, who broke with Freud in the mids. Rogers' focus was to ensure that the developmental processes led to healthier, if not more creative, personality functioning. The term 'actualizing tendency' was also coined by Rogers, and was a concept that eventually led Abraham Maslow to study self-actualization as one of the needs of humans.
Conceptual origins The humanistic approach has its roots in phenomenological and existentialist thought see Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Sartre. Eastern philosophy and psychology also play a central role in humanistic psychology, as well as Judeo-Christian philosophies of personalism, as each shares similar concerns about the nature of human existence and consciousness.
For further information on influential figures in personalism, see: Watson and B. Skinner, Abraham Maslow gave behaviorism the name "the second force". The humanistic psychology perspective is summarized by five core principles or postulates of humanistic psychology first articulated in an article written by James Bugental in  and adapted by Tom Greening, psychologist and long-time editor of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology.
If you want to be treated a certain way, then treat others that same way. If you don't want to be treated a certain way, then don't treat others that way. For example, you and a friend are going to have pizza for dinner. Your mom bakes a delicious pizza and cuts it into eight equal slices. How should you divide the pizza? If there are two of you, that means you should each get four slices.
Of course, you can always choose to take five slices and leave three for your friend, if you're really hungry. But what about your friend? How would you feel if your friend did the same thing?
If you'd like an equal amount of pizza, then the Golden Rule holds that you should only take half of the slices. Really simple, right? If you think about it, though, it's obviously not as easy as it sounds.
If everyone observed the Golden Rule, then there would be far fewer problems in the world today. Although it's not always easy to live up to, the Golden Rule is widely considered to be a universal principle.