Componential Analysis of Meaning: An Introduction to Semantic Structures. Eugène Albert Nida. Mouton (). Abstract, This article has no associated abstract. componential analysis of meaning as it is considered to be an important approach to the .. Nida, Eugene " Semantic Components in Translation Theory ." In. Componential analysis (Nida, ), semantic components 15 Eugene A. Nida , Componential Analysis of Meaning, An Introduction of Semantic (Great.
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1 Nida, Eugene A., Componential Analysis of Meaning: An Introduction to Semantic Nida, E. A., "Semantic Components in Translation Theory" in: Perren G. E. Key words: components, analysis, meaning, semantics Jackson in “Words and their meaning” ( 83) dan Nida in “Componential. Analysis of Meaning”. Nida, Eugene A. A Componential Analysis of Meaning. An Introduction to Semantic Structures eBook (PDF): 2nd print. Reprint Publication Date: June.
Become a member of TranslationDirectory. Graham in his article Theory for Translation p. It seems to me that this is indeed the case if the wealth of literature on the subject available today is any indication. This discussion continued right through to the second half of the 20th century when more systematic analyses were undertaken by Western European theoreticians. These systematic analyses, which elevated translation studies from its role of being primarily a language-learning activity, centred on theories of translation in new linguistic, literary, cultural and philosophical contexts Munday p. It is the linguistic approach that is the subject during the course of this discussion.
Catford also considers the law of probability in translation, a feature that may be linked to the scientific interest in machine translation at the time.
Some thirty years after Vinay and Darbelnet proposed the direct and oblique strategies for translation, Kitty van Leuven-Zwart developed a more complex theory, using different terminology, based on their work. Her idea is that the final translation is the end result of numerous shifts away from the ST, and that the cumulative effect of minor changes will alter the end product www. She suggested two models for translation shifts: 1 Comparative — where a comparison of the shifts within a sense unit or transeme phrase, clause, sentence between ST and TT is made.
She proposes a model of shift based on micro-level semantic transfer. The s and s sees a move away from the structural side of the linguistic approach as functional or communicative consideration is given to the text. Katharina Reiss continues to work on equivalence, but on the textual level rather than on the word or sentence level. She proposes a translation strategy for different text types, and says that there are four main textual functions: 1 Informative — designed for the relaying of fact.
The TT of this type should be totally representative of the ST, avoiding omissions and providing explanations if required. The TT should therefore produce the same impact on its reader as the reader of the ST.
This means, for example, that things like the source text type may be altered if it is deemed to be inappropriate for the target culture. She sees translation as an action that involves a series of players, each of whom performs a specific role in the process.
The language used to label the players very much resembles that of Western economic jargon — initiator, commissioner, ST producer, TT producer, TT user, TT receiver, that is adding another dimension to the theory of translation as yet rarely mentioned Munday pp Cultural issues in a sociolinguistic context therefore need to be considered. Skopos is important because it means that the same ST can be translated in different ways depending on the purpose and the guidelines provided by the commissioner of the translation.
In Vermeer and Reiss co-authored Grundlegung einer allgemeine Translationstheorie Groundwork for a General Theory of Translation based primarily on skopos, which tries to create a general theory of translation for all texts.
As a result, criticism has been levelled at skopos on the ground that it applies only to non-literary work Munday p. I tend to disagree with this last point because I look at skopos as a means of reflecting the ability of the translator. She places emphasis on the ST as she proposes a ST analysis that can help the translator decide on which methods to employ.
Some of the features for review are subject matter, content, presupposition, composition, illustrations, italics, and sentence structure Munday p.
In Translation as a Purposeful Activity her theory is developed as she acknowledges the importance of skopos. The information provided by the commissioner allows the translator to rank issues of concern in order before deciding on inclusions, omissions, elaborations, and whether the translation should have ST or TT priority.
One of the proponents of this approach was the Head of the Linguistics Department of Sydney University, Michael Halliday, who bases his work on Systemic Functional Grammar — the relationship between the language used by the author of a text and the social and cultural setting. Halliday says that the text type influences the register of the language — the word choice and syntax. He also says that the register can be divided into three variables: 1 Field — the subject of the text 2 Tenor — the author of the text and the intended reader 3 Mode — the form of the text all of which are important on the semantic level.
She creates a model for translation, which compares variables between ST and TT before deciding on whether to employ an overt or covert translation Stockinger p. This means that the target audience is well aware that what they are reading is a translation that is perhaps fixed in a foreign time and context.
This is just one of the techniques used to reveal the overt nature of the text. Such is the case with the guide leaflets distributed to visitors at Chenonceau Castle in the Loire Valley, which seem to have been created individually for an English audience and a French audience and possibly German, Spanish, Italian and Japanese audiences , so much so that it is almost impossible to tell which is the ST and which is the TT. She examines textual structure and function and how word forms may vary between languages, such as the substitution of the imperative for the infinitive in instruction manuals between English and French.
Wolfram Wilss. The Bible Translator 3, Download Citation. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Simply select your manager software from the list Nida: Componential Analysis of Meaning—an NIDA, 7.
Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read A Componential Analysis of Meaning: An Introduction to Semantic Structures. This situation may occur in a writing or reading task, as well as during a lesson based on a particular notion when many words have only a Nida, , Furthermore, Nida has developed these three basic steps into six procedural steps which are important for analyzing the components of a related set of meanings Conducting a tentative selection of meanings which appear to be closely related, in the sense that they constitute a relatively well-defined semantic domain by virtue of sharing a number of common components.
Listing all the specific kinds of referents for each of the meanings belonging to the domain in question. In some special situations one may even be able to list all the referents. For father and mother, as related to any one ego, there would presumably be only one referent. Expressions such as father-in-law, mother-in-law, stepfather, and stepmother are all regarded as separate semantic units and should be treated only as parts of extended domain, since they are clearly secondary in formal as well as semantic structure.
Determining those components which may be true of the meanings of one or more terms, but not of all the terms in question. Obviously some of the meanings, as reflected in the differences between referents, involve the component of female sex, e.
The term cousin is nondistinctive with respect to sex. One must proceed feature by feature to determine those components which do make distinctions, and ultimately the features of sex, generation, and lineality, and consanguinity vs. Determining the diagnostic components applicable to each meaning, so that the meaning of father may be indicted as possessing the components: male sex, one ascending generation, and direct descent; mother as female sex, one ascending generation, and direct descent; brother as male sex, same generation as ego, and first degree of laterality; etc.
Cross-checking with the data obtained by the first procedure. On the basis of the diagnostic features, one should be able to apply the correct terms to the referents known to possess such features. Describing the diagnostic features systematically. It may be done simply by listing the diagnostic features for each meaning or term or the arrangement of such data in the form of a tree diagram or matrix. The diagnostic features of kinship terms 4.
Linguistic Basis for Componential Analysis The actual linguistic procedures employed in CA consists of four types, they are naming, paraphrasing, defining, and classifying. If elicitation of usage is carefully conducted and if the results of such a procedure are carefully checked against spontaneous utterances, there is every reason to believe that the results of using the four basic processes of naming, paraphrasing, defining, and classifying can be essentially accurate Nida, Reference is usually described as the relation established between linear unit and a referent, while naming is the specific act of designating a referent.
It consists essentially in combining all the various specific paraphrases into a single statement based on the diagnostic components of the particular meaning in question. Classification is never merely a process of putting referents into conceptual files for the basic kinship terms in English, it is essential to establish the features of sex, generation, degree of lineality, and consanguinity-affinal distinction.
Contributions to the Study of Meaning.
Componential analysis has a useful part to play in contributing to the description of meanings of lexemes Jackson, Here are some of the contributions. Understanding synonymy. A pair of true synonyms will share the same set of semantic components.
Establishing degrees of synonymy. For example, barn and shed would be looser synonyms. Understanding antonymy. A pair of antonyms usually share all their components except one, e. Understanding the sense relation of hyponymy.
Hyponymy refers to the relation of inclusion of meaning, e. Helping translator to produce accurate translation. CA Determines the essential features of meaning of lexical units, which is very useful in doing translation Nida, 7. A number of fundamental difficulties are involved in determining the diagnostic components of the meanings of semantic unit Nida, The lack of an adequate metalanguage with which to describe some of the diversities. It is difficult enough to speak of distinctions in color, so that a contiguous series such as violet, blue, purple, green, yellow, orange, and red can be properly described in terms of diagnostic components.
Another obvious example involves the semantic domain of odors: stink, smell, stench, and malodor, or the semantic domain of noises seperti scream, screech, squeak, and squeal.
Meanings which constitute a contiguous set. The meaning of even in contexts such as even john kissed Marry, John even kissed Marry, and John kissed even Marry is paralleled to some extent by only, e. The related meanings of even, only, and just are contiguous, therefore one must look for other sets of contrast to provide the basis for componential analysis.
Some terms which primarily differ only in the degree of intensity. There may be no absolute feature which marks the difference but by only a relative contrast.
Toss and hurl may be regarded as types of throwing, but the major difference is one of intensity, and accordingly one must reckon with a continuum on which there is no fixed boundary between the two. The speed at which a professional baseball player may toss a ball may be much faster than the speed at which some amateur ball players can hurl. The diversity of view points, especially in describing spatial relations.
For a house one can speak of behind and in front of, since a house is regarded as having a back and front. But when one speaks of behind a tree and in front of a tree, the spatial relation must be relative to a view point character or existing situation. Time involves similar difficulties.
The meaning of many abstract terms. It involves a number of complications because of their potential syntagmatic relations to so many events and entities. A word such as lousy may occur with a vast number of different semantic heads, e.
None of which have anything to do with a louse.
A word can have different meanings in different fields. The word competence is used in the fields of linguistics, education dan psychology, and they define and use it in different ways and contexts. Deixis terms. Distinctions may be based on relations rather than on physical features. Certain aspects of complications have already been noted in the discussions of kinship terms, but meanings reflected in suh terms as friend, partner, colleague, and associate are even more difficult to analyze.