portal7.info Cited by: 3. Read the full text. About. Figures; References; Related; Information. ePDF PDF. PDF · ePDF. BiophysicalJournal Volume65 July The Machinery of Life by David S. Goodsell. Springer-Verlag, New York, pages. $ Reviewed. David S. Goodsell, a renowned researcher in molecular biology, and an artist, combines his scientific interest in biological molecules with his.
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The Machinery of Life. Authors; (view affiliations). David S. David S. Goodsell. Pages PDF · Life and Death. David S. Goodsell. Pages PDF. All living cells are made up of an extraordinary collection of tiny molecular machines, which orchestrate the millions of tasks needed for life. Cells build these. Credit: David Goodsell, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California. Reproduced Download full-text PDF book, The Machinery of Life , or in the .
Cells build these machines for a variety of purposes: to digest food, to propel them to fertile feeding grounds or away from predators, to store the genetic blueprint, and to fight disease-causing invaders. The Machinery of Life is a journey into the sub-microscopic world of molecular machines. The reader is first introduced to the types of molecules built by cells: proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and polysaccharides. In a series of distinctive illustrations, the reader is then guided through the interior world of cells, exploring the ways in which molecules work in concert to perform the processes of living. Finally, the book shows how vitamins, viruses, poisons, and drugs each have their effects on the molecules in our bodies.
Goodsell, a renowned researcher in molecular biology, and an artist, combines his scientific interest in biological molecules with his passion for painting in this wonderful new edition of his book The Machinery of Life. The book is aimed at non-scientific readers and at researchers from different disciplines who are looking for a quick and entertaining, but scientifically sound, introduction to molecular biology.
But even experienced researchers across the biological sciences will derive great pleasure from dipping into the book and its charming hand-coloured pictures. The Machinery of Life is all about putting basic biological knowledge into perspective and developing intuition about how biological molecules assemble to build organelles, cells and whole organisms.
The book wonderfully develops the understanding of a multi-scale view on the mechanisms of life; it explains how molecules assemble to form cells and how cells work together to build whole multicellular organisms.
Without the need to understand thoroughly every single detail of each individual process and molecule, Goodsell teaches us how different molecules act in concert, and makes us appreciate and understand how processes on a molecular level are responsible for getting old, jumping when playing basketball, catching a cold or feeling hungry.
The first three chapters of the book cover a quick introduction to basic molecular biology and the biochemistry of molecules such as DNA, lipids and poly-saccharides.
We learn how these biological molecules are employed in cells to build new proteins or obtain energy, how they protect the cells and how cells use them to communicate with the environment. The next two chapters describe and contrast the structure and components of Escherichia coli and human cells. I have included two types of illustrations with this goal in mind: watercolor paintings which magnify a small portion of a living cell by one million times, showing the arrangement of molecules inside, and comput- generated pictures, which show the atomic details of individual molecules.
In this second edition of The Machinery of Life, these illustrations are presented in full color, and they incorporate many of the exciting scientific advances of the 15 years since the first edition. About the authors Dr. David S. His illustrations have become well known and now appear in many publications as the primary demonstration of the crowded nature of cells.
Reviews From the reviews of the second edition: "The Machinery of Life is a journey into the sub-microscopic world of molecular machines.
Readers are introduced to the types of molecules within the cell, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and polysaccharides. It is written in clear, jargon-free text that is accessible to the lay reader. The envelope is studded with viral proteins. These include hemagglutinin 1ruz and neuraminidase 1nn2 , which are involved in recognition and entry of the virus into cells, and M2 2rlf , a proton channel that acidifies the virus when it is enclosed in endosomes, triggering the release of the viral nucleoproteins.
Electron micrograph studies [ 6 ] have shown that these proteins are densely packed and arranged randomly on the surface of the virus.
The cell membrane is in green, and the viral proteins are in red and purple. The RNA is packaged in long helical ribonucleoproteins. The viral genome includes eight different strands of RNA of lengths ranging from to 2, nucleotides. The crescent shape of the nucleoprotein is based on electron micrograph structures of recombinant ribonucleoprotein particles [ 9 ].
This was based on electron micrograph structures of the polymerase and its complex with a recombinant ribonucleoprotein [ 10 , 11 ]. The HIV illustration Fig. In electron micrographs, HIV is quite variable, with measurements from electron microscopy ranging, for instance, from — nm [ 12 ] to — nm [ 13 ].
I have chosen a diameter of nm [ 12 , 14 ]. The surface of the virus is studded with roughly 14 envelope glycoprotein spikes with an observed range of 4—35 [ 16 ], which have a random arrangement on the surface and are important for binding to cell surfaces and mediating entry. Viral proteins are in red, purple, and orange, cellular proteins are in blue, and the viral envelope membrane and cellular membrane proteins are in green.
The envelope glycoprotein spikes are composed of trimers of two proteins: The extracellular portion is based on several crystallographic structures: The tripod structure of the transmembrane portion is based on electron microscopy [ 16 , 18 ], although other data place all three chains in close proximity see, e.
Several antibodies are shown binding to the spike 3lex.
Two accessory proteins are also found in the viral envelope. Vpu is important for viral release and is thought to form an ion channel through the membrane [ 20 ] 1vpu and 1pi7. Nef negative factor interacts with several cellular systems to increase the replication and pathogenicity of the virus and is bound to the membrane through an attached myristoyl lipid [ 21 , 22 ] 1qa4 and 1avv. A layer of matrix protein is attached to the inner surface of the membrane, through myristoyl lipids attached to the proteins [ 24 ].
The protein forms a stable trimer 1hiw. Electron micrographs show that it forms a fragmented hexagonal lattice in immature particles [ 25 ], not an ordered icosahedral structure as proposed in earlier studies. The capsid protein is based on two crystallographic structures: The RNA also has a complex secondary structure, including a region that mediates dimerization between the two copies [ 28 ] and hairpin structures that are involved in replication [ 29 ].
The remaining space is filled with a soup of viral and host molecules. These include several viral enzymes: There are also several accessory proteins: Vif based on the size of amino acids , Vpr 1esx , and P6 51 amino acids, largely unstructured [ 27 ].
Several cellular proteins are included. Many other proteins have been detected in virions—I chose to include a selection of generic proteins in the illustration to represent this diverse mixture of captured proteins.
I did not include large segments of actin as presented in a recent 3D model [ 30 ], because reports indicate that the actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in assembly and release, but not in any postrelease process [ 23 ]. Gag is cleaved to form the structural proteins matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid, as well as the small accessory protein P6.
Estimates of the number of gag proteins range widely, with early estimates ranging from 1, to 2,, and more recent electron micrograph results giving estimates of 5, [ 12 ].
Thus, in contrast to many published schematic diagrams of HIV, there are several hundred copies of each of these enzymes in the mature virion.
The capsid is composed of roughly 1,—1, capsid proteins [ 12 ].