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Bison's input is the language syntax rules in BNF format.
Not a context free grammar As we have seen in the parsing introduction, grammar syntax can be defined formally using formats like BNF. HTML cannot easily be defined by a context free grammar that parsers need. There are lots of available XML parsers.
The difference is that the HTML approach is more "forgiving": it lets you omit certain tags which are then added implicitly , or sometimes omit start or end tags, and so on. On the whole it's a "soft" syntax, as opposed to XML's stiff and demanding syntax. This seemingly small detail makes a world of a difference. On one hand this is the main reason why HTML is so popular: it forgives your mistakes and makes life easy for the web author.
On the other hand, it makes it difficult to write a formal grammar. So to summarize, HTML cannot be parsed easily by conventional parsers, since its grammar is not context free. This format is used to define languages of the SGML family.
The format contains definitions for all allowed elements, their attributes and hierarchy. There are a few variations of the DTD. The strict mode conforms solely to the specifications but other modes contain support for markup used by browsers in the past.
The purpose is backwards compatibility with older content. The current strict DTD is here: www. The root of the tree is the " Document " object. The DOM has an almost one-to-one relation to the markup. See www. It is a generic specification for manipulating documents. A specific module describes HTML specific elements. The HTML definitions can be found here: www. Browsers use concrete implementations that have other attributes used by the browser internally.
The parsing algorithm As we saw in the previous sections, HTML cannot be parsed using the regular top down or bottom up parsers. The reasons are: The forgiving nature of the language. The fact that browsers have traditional error tolerance to support well known cases of invalid HTML. The parsing process is reentrant. For other languages, the source doesn't change during parsing, but in HTML, dynamic code such as script elements containing document.
Unable to use the regular parsing techniques, browsers create custom parsers for parsing HTML. The parsing algorithm is described in detail by the HTML5 specification. The algorithm consists of two stages: tokenization and tree construction.
Tokenization is the lexical analysis, parsing the input into tokens. Among HTML tokens are start tags, end tags, attribute names and attribute values.
The tokenizer recognizes the token, gives it to the tree constructor, and consumes the next character for recognizing the next token, and so on until the end of the input.
The algorithm is expressed as a state machine. Each state consumes one or more characters of the input stream and updates the next state according to those characters. The decision is influenced by the current tokenization state and by the tree construction state. This means the same consumed character will yield different results for the correct next state, depending on the current state. The algorithm is too complex to describe fully, so let's see a simple example that will help us understand the principle.
Consuming an a-z character causes creation of a "Start tag token", the state is changed to "Tag name state". Each character is appended to the new token name. In our case the created token is an html token. So far the html and body tags were emitted. We are now back at the "Data state".
We will emit a character token for each character of Hello world. We are now back at the "Tag open state". Then the new tag token will be emitted and we go back to the "Data state". Figure : Tokenizing the example input Tree construction algorithm When the parser is created the Document object is created.
During the tree construction stage the DOM tree with the Document in its root will be modified and elements will be added to it.
Each node emitted by the tokenizer will be processed by the tree constructor. For each token the specification defines which DOM element is relevant to it and will be created for this token.
The element is added to the DOM tree, and also the stack of open elements. This stack is used to correct nesting mismatches and unclosed tags. The algorithm is also described as a state machine. The states are called "insertion modes". The first mode is the "initial mode".
Receiving the "html" token will cause a move to the "before html" mode and a reprocessing of the token in that mode. The state will be changed to "before head". The "body" token is then received. We now move to the "in head" mode and then to "after head". The character tokens of the "Hello world" string are now received. The first one will cause creation and insertion of a "Text" node and the other characters will be appended to that node.
The receiving of the body end token will cause a transfer to "after body" mode. We will now receive the html end tag which will move us to "after after body" mode. Receiving the end of file token will end the parsing.
Figure : tree construction of example html Actions when the parsing is finished At this stage the browser will mark the document as interactive and start parsing scripts that are in "deferred" mode: those that should be executed after the document is parsed. The document state will be then set to "complete" and a "load" event will be fired.
Browsers fix any invalid content and go on. So a lot of the parser code is fixing the HTML author mistakes. Error handling is quite consistent in browsers, but amazingly enough it hasn't been part of HTML specifications.
There are known invalid HTML constructs repeated on many sites, and the browsers try to fix them in a way conformant with other browsers. The HTML5 specification does define some of these requirements. The parser parses tokenized input into the document, building up the document tree. If the document is well-formed, parsing it is straightforward. Unfortunately, we have to handle many HTML documents that are not well-formed, so the parser has to be tolerant about errors.
We have to take care of at least the following error conditions: The element being added is explicitly forbidden inside some outer tag. In this case we should close all tags up to the one which forbids the element, and add it afterwards. We are not allowed to add the element directly. It could be that the person writing the document forgot some tag in between or that the tag in between is optional. We want to add a block element inside an inline element. Close all inline elements up to the next higher block element.
If this doesn't help, close elements until we are allowed to add the element—or ignore the tag. A stray table A stray table is a table inside another table, but not inside a table cell. The tables will now be siblings. Nested form elements In case the user puts a form inside another form, the second form is ignored.
The code: if! We will only allow at most 20 nested tags of the same type before just ignoring them all together. Support for really broken HTML. We never close the body tag, since some stupid web pages close it before the actual end of the doc. Let's rely on the end call to close things. CSS parsing Remember the parsing concepts in the introduction? The part inside the curly braces contains the rules that are applied by this ruleset. A ruleset contains curly braces and inside them a declaration or optionally a number of declarations separated by a semicolon.
As you recall from the parser introduction, Bison creates a bottom up shift-reduce parser. Firefox uses a top down parser written manually. Each object contains CSS rules. The parsing of the document halts until the script has been executed.
If the script is external then the resource must first be fetched from the network—this is also done synchronously, and parsing halts until the resource is fetched. This was the model for many years and is also specified in HTML4 and 5 specifications. Authors can add the "defer" attribute to a script, in which case it will not halt document parsing and will execute after the document is parsed. HTML5 adds an option to mark the script as asynchronous so it will be parsed and executed by a different thread.
Speculative parsing Both WebKit and Firefox do this optimization.
While executing scripts, another thread parses the rest of the document and finds out what other resources need to be loaded from the network and loads them. In this way, resources can be loaded on parallel connections and overall speed is improved. Note: the speculative parser only parses references to external resources like external scripts, style sheets and images: it doesn't modify the DOM tree—that is left to the main parser.
Style sheets Style sheets on the other hand have a different model. Conceptually it seems that since style sheets don't change the DOM tree, there is no reason to wait for them and stop the document parsing. There is an issue, though, of scripts asking for style information during the document parsing stage. If the style is not loaded and parsed yet, the script will get wrong answers and apparently this caused lots of problems.
It seems to be an edge case but is quite common. Firefox blocks all scripts when there is a style sheet that is still being loaded and parsed. WebKit blocks scripts only when they try to access certain style properties that may be affected by unloaded style sheets. Render tree construction While the DOM tree is being constructed, the browser constructs another tree, the render tree. This tree is of visual elements in the order in which they will be displayed.
It is the visual representation of the document. To indicate to the browser that the file should be viewed in the browser: ColinM ColinM 9, 2 29 To force download I rather use Content-Type: Taboada Jan 7 '13 at Taboada but then the user's system may not know the file type. Perhaps if you want to override the user's preferences then octet-stream would be the way to go, but giving the correct type and a suggested filename is the "correct" way to provide a download.
So my question is should the content type be set before uploading? And also, we get only a link from the backend team, a url that gives the file path, that we open in new tab using: Kailas I don't understand what you're trying to do..
These headers have no effect on a file upload, you need to have the code behind the url set the headers every time it is downloaded by the client. ColinM Thanks buddy, you said it right, the issue when we debugged was the mime type was set while uploading the files. This should be done by the back-end team.
I tried to get codes on how to add headers in java script but was not successful. Thanks, as I got the real idea cleared from you Akshay Akshay 1, 3 21 If you have control over the server code you should use 'attachement' as this will allow to use the same filename generation code. If you have no control over the server this is a good solution. Important to note that this does not work across domains e.
If downloading from one domain, the download attribute will not work if content is stored on a different domain.
CORS may allow that content to pass through haven't tested. This is literally the opposite of what the OP is asking: Yes figured!
If you have control over the server code: Use the HTML5 download attribute. It uses the custom filename specified on the view side. Christophe Roussy Christophe Roussy 9, 1 57 If you have Apache add this to the.
Alex Alex 41 1 3. Oops, there were typing errors in my previous post. Andrew Barber 34k 14 79 What previous post? This is for ASP. FilePath, FileMode. Open, FileAccess. Leon van Wyk Leon van Wyk 3 6. You can do this in the following way: I have used this code and it worked perfectly. Mohsin Mohsin 15 2. No mention that they use Apache.
What if they use IIS? Or Express? If you are using CodeIgniter. Please set: Open downloads. Then go to line and change it to the following: Cleb No mention that they use PHP. What if their backend is in Python or.
He doesn't even say what framework he's talking about. Here is another method of forcing a file to view in the browser in PHP: